Kadmium

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Cadmium, 48Cd
Citakan:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Cadmium
Ucapan/ˈkædmiəm/ (KAD-mee-əm)
Katémbonghawuk métalik
Beurat atom baku Ar, std(Cd)112.414(4)[1]
Nomer massaCd:
Cadmium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
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Zn

Cd

Hg
salakacadmiumindium
Atomic number (Z)48
Golongangroup 12
Periodeperiod 5
Blockd-block
Element category  Post-transition metal, alternatively considered a transition metal
Konpigurasi éléktron[Kr] 4d10 5s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 2
Pasipatan pisik
Phase at STPCd: Solid
Melting point594.22 K ​(321.07 °C, ​609.93 °F)
Boiling point1040 K ​(767 °C, ​1413 °F)
Density (near r.t.)8.65 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)7.996 g/cm3
Heat of fusion6.21 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization99.87 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.020 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 530 583 654 745 867 1040
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, +1, +2 (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.69
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 867.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1631.4 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3616 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 151 pm
Covalent radius144±9 pm
Van der Waals radius158 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of cadmium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceCd: Primordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for cadmium
Speed of sound thin rod2310 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion30.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity96.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity72.7 nΩ·m (at 22 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnétik[2]
Magnetic susceptibility−19.8·10−6 cm3/mol[3]
Young's modulus50 GPa
Shear modulus19 GPa
Bulk modulus42 GPa
Poisson ratio0.30
Mohs hardness2.0
Brinell hardness203–220 MPa
CAS Number7440-43-9
History
Discovery and first isolationKarl Samuel Leberecht Hermann jeung Friedrich Stromeyer (1817)
Named byFriedrich Stromeyer (1817)
Main isotopes of cadmium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
106Cd 1.25% stable
107Cd syn 6.5 h ε 107Ag
108Cd 0.89% stable
109Cd syn 462.6 d ε 109Ag
110Cd 12.47% stable
111Cd 12.80% stable
112Cd 24.11% stable
113Cd 12.23% 7.7×1015 y β 113In
113mCd syn 14.1 y β 113In
IT 113Cd
114Cd 28.75% stable
115Cd syn 53.46 h β 115In
116Cd 7.51% 3.1×1019 y ββ 116Sn
| references

Kadmium nyaéta unsur kimia anu lambangna Cd sarta nomer atom 48. Logamna hipu, kelir bodas semu pérak, sacara kimia sarupa jeung logam stabil lianna dina golongan 12, séng jeung raksa. Siga séng, kaayaan oksidasina +2 dina kalolobaan sanyawana, jeung siga raksa, boga titik lééh leuwih handap tibatan logam alihan dina golongan 3 nepi ka 11. Kadmium jeung baturna di golongan 12 sering teu dianggap logam transisi, kusabab kulit éléktron d atawa f-na teu kaeusi sawarbh boh dina bentuk murnina kaayaan oksidasi umumna. Kadar kadmium dina kulit Bumi nyaéta antara 0,1 n.k. 0,5 bagéan per juta (ppm). Ieu logam kapanggih taun 1817 sacara simultan ku Stromeyer jeung Hermann, duanana di Jerman, salaku 'kokotor' dina séng karbonat .

Baca ogé[édit | édit sumber]

Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]

  1. Meija, Juris; Coplen, Tyler B.; Berglund, Michael; Brand, Willi A.; De Bièvre, Paul; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Irrgeher, Johanna et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
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