Dinasti Safawiyah

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Dinasti Safawiyah Iran[1][2]
سلسلهٔ صفويان
Kakaisaran

 

1501–1736
Bandéra Safawiyah saprak abad ka-17.[3] Salasahiji lambang nagara saprak jaman awal Safawiyah.[4]
Peta Kakaisaran Safawiyah-Imperii Persici (Kakaisaran Pérsia), ku Johann Homann.
Ibu kota
Basa
Agama Islam Syiah Dua Welas (agama nagara)[15]
Pamaréntahan Monarki
Shah
 - 1501–24 Ismail I
 - 1524–76 Tahmasp I
 - 1587–1629 Abbas I
 - 1694–1722 Sultan Husayn
 - 1729–32 Tahmasp II
 - 1732–36 Abbas III
 - 1732–36 Nader Afshar
Sajarah
 - Ngadegna Safawiyya ku Safi-ad-din Ardabili 1301
 - Ngadeg 1501
 - Invasi Hotaki 1722
 - Ditarajang dina Nader Afshar 1726–29
 - Bubar 1736
 - Nader Shah mangku tahta 1 Oktober 1736
Aréa 2.850.000 km2 (1.100.391 mil pasagi)
Mata uang Tuman, Abbasi, Shahi.[16]
  • 1 Tuman = 50 Abbasi.
  • 1 Tuman = 50 French Livre.
  • 1 Tuman = £3 6s 8d.
Diheulaan ku
Dilanjut ku
Dinasti Timurid
Ak Koyunlu
Dinasti Hotaki
Dinasti Afsharid
Eyalet Mosul
Eyalet Baghdad
Eyalet Basra
Ayeuna bagian ti *Bandéra Apganistan Apganistan

Dinasti Safawiyah (basa Pérsia: سلسلهٔ صفويان; Basa Azerbaijan: صفویلر) nyaéta salasahiji dinasti Iran. Dinasti ieu mangrupa salasahiji kakaisaran Pérsia nu ageung saprak Panarajangan Muslim kana Pérsia[17][18][19][20] sarta ngadegkeun ajaran Islam Syiah Dua Welas[21] salaku agama resmi kakaisaran. Safawiyah miboga kawasana ti 1501 nepi ka 1722 (ngalaman réstorasi sakedap ti 1729 nepi ka 1736). Nalika wayah kajayaanna, dinasti ieu ngawasaan sadaya wewengkon ti Iran, Azerbaijan, jeung Arménia modérn, sarta raloba bagian ti Irak, Géorgia, Apganistan, jeung Kaukasus, ogé sabagian Pakistan, Turkménistan, jeung Turki. Iran Safawiyah mangrupa salasahiji "kakaisaran mesiu" Islam, bareng jeung tatanggina, Kakaisran Ottoman jeung Mughal.

Shah Safawiyah Iran[édit | sunting sumber]

Gurat wanci Dinasti Safawiyah

Tingali ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Rujukan jeung catetan[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. "Safavid dynasty".
  2. "Safavid Persia".
  3. ...the Order of the Lion and the Sun, a device which, since the 17 century at least, appeared on the national flag of the Safavids the lion representing 'Ali and the sun the glory of the Shi'i faith, Mikhail Borisovich Piotrovskiĭ, J. M. Rogers, Hermitage Rooms at Somerset House, Courtauld Institute of Art, Heaven on earth: Art from Islamic Lands : Works from the State Hermitage Museum and the Khalili Collection, Prestel, 2004, p. 178.
  4. Ingvild Flaskerud (26 November 2010). Visualizing Belief and Piety in Iranian Shiism, 182–183, Continuum International Publishing Group. URL accessed 24 July 2011.
  5. Roemer, H. R. (1986). "The Safavid Period". The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 189–350. ISBN 0-521-20094-6, p. 331: "Depressing though the condition in the country may have been at the time of the fall of Safavids, they cannot be allowed to overshadow the achievements of the dynasty, which was in many respects to prove essential factors in the development of Persia in modern times. These include the maintenance of Persian as the official language and of the present-day boundaries of the country, adherence to the Twelever Shi'i, the monarchical system, the planning and architectural features of the urban centers, the centralised administration of the state, the alliance of the Shi'i Ulama with the merchant bazaars, and the symbiosis of the Persian-speaking population with important non-Persian, especially Turkish speaking minorities".
  6. a b c Rudi Matthee, "Safavids" in Encyclopædia Iranica, accessed on April 4, 2010. "The Persian focus is also reflected in the fact that theological works also began to be composed in the Persian language and in that Persian verses replaced Arabic on the coins." "The political system that emerged under them had overlapping political and religious boundaries and a core language, Persian, which served as the literary tongue, and even began to replace Arabic as the vehicle for theological discourse".
  7. Ronald W Ferrier, The Arts of Persia. Yale University Press. 1989, p. 9.
  8. a b John R Perry, "Turkic-Iranian contacts", Encyclopædia Iranica, January 24, 2006: "...written Persian, the language of high literature and civil administration, remained virtually unaffected in status and content"
  9. Cyril Glassé (ed.), The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, revised ed., 2003, ISBN 0-7591-0190-6, p. 392: "Shah Abbas moved his capital from Qazvin to Isfahan. His reigned marked the peak of Safavid dynasty's achievement in art, diplomacy, and commerce. It was probably around this time that the court, which originally spoke a Turkic language, began to use Persian"
  10. Arnold J. Toynbee, A Study of History, V, pp. 514-15. excerpt: "in the heyday of the Mughal, Safawi, and Ottoman regimes New Persian was being patronized as the language of literae humaniores by the ruling element over the whole of this huge realm, while it was also being employed as the official language of administration in those two-thirds of its realm that lay within the Safawi and the Mughal frontiers"
  11. a b Mazzaoui, Michel B, Canfield, Robert (2002). "Islamic Culture and Literature in Iran and Central Asia in the early modern period" Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, 86–7, Cambridge University Press. "Safavid power with its distinctive Persian-Shi'i culture, however, remained a middle ground between its two mighty Turkish neighbors. The Safavid state, which lasted at least until 1722, was essentially a "Turkish" dynasty, with Azeri Turkish (Azerbaijan being the family's home base) as the language of the rulers and the court as well as the Qizilbash military establishment. Shah Ismail wrote poetry in Turkish. The administration nevertheless was Persian, and the Persian language was the vehicle of diplomatic correspondence (insha'), of belles-lettres (adab), and of history (tarikh)."
  12. Savory, Roger (2007). Iran Under the Safavids, Cambridge University Press. "qizilbash normally spoke Azari brand of Turkish at court, as did the Safavid shahs themselves; lack of familiarity with the Persian language may have contributed to the decline from the pure classical standards of former times"
  13. Zabiollah Safa (1986), "Persian Literature in the Safavid Period", The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-20094-6, pp. 948–65. P. 950: "In day-to-day affairs, the language chiefly used at the Safavid court and by the great military and political officers, as well as the religious dignitaries, was Turkish, not Persian; and the last class of persons wrote their religious works mainly in Arabic. Those who wrote in Persian were either lacking in proper tuition in this tongue, or wrote outside Iran and hence at a distance from centers where Persian was the accepted vernacular, endued with that vitality and susceptibility to skill in its use which a language can have only in places where it truly belongs."
  14. Price, Massoume (2005). Iran's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook, ABC-CLIO. "The Shah was a native Turkic speaker and wrote poetry in the Azerbaijani language."
  15. The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Ed. Cyril Glassé, (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008), 449.
  16. Ferrier, RW, A Journey to Persia: Jean Chardin's Portrait of a Seventeenth-century Empire, p. ix.
  17. Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313.
  18. Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145.
  19. Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77.
  20. Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, IB Tauris (March 30, 2006).
  21. RM Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed.

Pustaka[édit | sunting sumber]

  • M.I. Marcinkowski (tr.),Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  • M.I. Marcinkowski (tr., ed.),Mirza Rafi‘a's Dastur al-Muluk: A Manual of Later Safavid Administration. Annotated English Translation, Comments on the Offices and Services, and Facsimile of the Unique Persian Manuscript, M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Kuala Lumpur, ISTAC, 2002, ISBN 983-9379-26-7.
  • M.I. Marcinkowski,From Isfahan to Ayutthaya: Contacts between Iran and Siam in the 17th Century, M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Singapore, Pustaka Nasional, 2005, ISBN 9971-77-491-7.
  • Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, "Safavi Ahad Main Ilm Tashreeh Ka Mutala (a book in Urdu on Studies of History of anatomy during Safavid dynasty), Tibbi Academy, Aligarh, India, 1983, 96 pp.
  • "The Voyages and Travels of the Ambassadors", Adam Olearius, translated by John Davies (1662),

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