Kasintu

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Kasintu (Inggris : junglefowl)
Kasintu jalu
Kasintu bikang
Status konservasi
Klasifikasi ilmiah
Karajaan: Animalia
Filum: Chordata
Kelas: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Kulawarga: Phasianidae
Subfamily: Phasianinae
Génus: Gallus
Spésiés: G. gallus
Ngaran binomial
Gallus gallus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Tempat hirup kasintu

Kasintu; basa Latina (Gallus gallus) nyaéta hayam leuweung anu hirup di daérah tropical asalna tina kulawarga ''Phasianidae''. Kasintu dipercaya mangrupa karuhun atawa bibit buitna tina hayam leuweung hawuk jeung anu kiwari loba di ingu/dipiara, kalawan geus ngarandapan sabaraha parobahan tina kelir jeung wanda buluna.[2] Kasintu geus dikukut/diingu sina baranahan pikeun diarah daging jeung endogna sahenteuna geus lima rébu taun anu kaliwat dimimitian di Asia, ti wangkid harita kasintu ngarekahan ka sakuliah dunya.[3]

Tempat hirup[édit | édit sumber]

Kasintu kapanggih hirup liar ti mimiti Tamil Nadu, India kalér (didaérah ieu kasintu geus pacampur katurunana jeung hayam asli iéu wewengkon), kitu ogé kabeulah kidulna China nepika Malaysia, Singapura, Philipina tur Indonésia. Ieu hayam ogé kapireungeuh hirup di pulo Hawai, kaasup dijerona Kauai, pulo Christmas , Vanuatu, jeung Mariana Islands.

Kasintu diunggal daérah mibanda katurunan (subspecies of Gallus gallus), tayalian :

  • G. g. gallus – ti daérah Indochina
  • G. g. bankiva – ti daérah Jawa
  • G. g. jabouillei – ti daérah Vietnam
  • G. g. murghi – ti daérah India
  • G. g. spadiceus – ti daérah Burma
  • G. g. domesticus – (hayam domestik/pituin geus maneuh)

Ciri mandiri[édit | édit sumber]

Kasintu anu jalu pangawakan leuwih badag ti batan bikangna. Jawér saluhureun huluna panjang rérégéan kawas ragaji mibanda kurang leuwih lima bagian anu maréncos kelirna beureum, kulit pipi handapeun ceulina katutup ku bagéan anu bodas kawas apu/wedak sagedé tapak jempol, bulu dina beuheungna gomplok ngabulen kawas simbut kelirna beurem hinyay ngagurilap semu konéng, buntutna mibanda kurang leuwih 20 bulu seseg kelirna hideung hinyay semu bulao, mangsa katojo panonpoé. Bijil tina tungir panjangna lima ramoan sawaréhna (aya dua) mencenghul kaluar melengkung ukuranna leuwih panjang 2 nepika 3 kali panjang bulu buntut anu séjéna, sisit cékérna abu-abu/hawuk mibanda siih anu méncos tur seukeut, bulu dina puhu ping-ping hideung hinyay semu bulao, Bulu jangjang kelirna beureum kaselang ku kelir hideung kawas soléndang.

Kasintu bikang pangawakan leuwih leutik jawérna pondok méh méhan henteu katempo, buluna carambang hawuk dina palebah beuheungna kaselang jeung kelir konéng, lolondokan méh teu katempo mangsa keur aya dina jujukutan atawa luhureun kalakay anu murag, buntutna pondok kurang leuwih lima ramo, pamatuk jeung irungna hawuk semu hideung.

Mangsana begér kasintu remen kadéngé kongkorongok ngageroan bikangna.[4] Kongkorongok ogé mangrupa tanggara pikeun kasintu lian sangkan ngajauhan éta daérah ku sabab mangrupa kakawasaana, lamun henteu nyingkah tur pasarandog geus bisa dipastikeun bakal ngadon diadu.[5][6]

Kabiasaan sapopoé[édit | édit sumber]

Bikang
Jalu

Kasintu jaluna ngoréhan hakaneun, di mana geus manggih geuwat disada keketok ngageroan bikangna .[7] Mangsa bikangna geus nyamperkeun geuwat hakaneun dipacok deui tuluy dipuragkeun deui hareupeun bikangna, bikangna tuluy ngahakan éta paméré jaluna, jaluna teu eureun disada bari ngurilingan bikangna tur mébérkeun jangjangna sabeulah, minangkana ngahelaran ka éta bikang..[8] Sabot kitu kasintu jaluna tetep waspada sok gentak curinghak bari jeung disada keketok méré tangara ka kasintu séjén mangsa aya bahaya [9] Kasintu jalu anu kieu dipikaresep ku kasintu bikang[10]

Kasintu kasebut sato ''omnivora'' sagigireun ngahakan sisikian anu kapanggih ogé ngahakan sabangsaning simeut, cacing, hileud jeung sajabana[11]

Kasintu kalan-kalan ngupuk (mandi maké taneuh kebul atawa keusik) ieu maksudna nyingkahkeun kutu jeung kokotor anu nyelap dina sela-sela buluna.[12]

Kasintu mah henteu hiber jauh, sapopoé hirup luhureun taneuh bari nyiar hakaneun, sakapeungna hiber henteu jauh ngan saukur ngahontal dahan anu deukeut paragi eunteup nyingkahan bahaya ogé mangsana datang peuting hiber kana dahan sangkan aman tina bahaya tempona mareuting.

Gambaran kasintu jalu jeung bikang

Sajarah[édit | édit sumber]

Sajeroning taun 2012 geus diréngsékeun hiji panalungtikan kana DNA mitokondria tina hiji conto tulang kuno ti sabaraha tempat : Eropa, Chili, ogé tina galian situs kolonial Spanyol di Florida jeung Republik dominika, ieu panalungtikan meunang hiji kacindekan yén kasintu baheulana bisa waé aya anu ngingu/ngukut sanajan sababaraha panalungtikan nyebutkeun cenah meureun tina kasintu tapi béda spesiesna sahenteuna dina taun 7.400 anu geus kaliwat. Panalungtikan ieu ogé ngajentrékeun deui yén dina taun 5.400 SM anu kaliwat geus di mangpaatkeun pikeun hayam inguan ieu dumasar kana galian situs di Chishan provinsi hebei Cina. Sanajan kitu, ieu masih jadi padungdengan para élmuwan ngeunaan kasintu/hayam anu dikukut ku manusa[3]

Asal muasal[édit | édit sumber]

Tilu genus anu béda — kasintu Sri Lanka(Gallus lafayetii), Kasintu hawuk (Gallus sonneratii), Kasintu héjo (Gallus varius)— kanyahoan henteu bisa dihibridasi/kawin silang, ku lantaran ngahasilkeun kasintu anu bajir/mandul, ku alatan kitu bisa dicokot kacindekan maranéhna mangrupa karuhun/bibit buit tina hayam anu kiwari loba dikukut.[2] A culturally significant hybrid between the red junglefowl and the green junglefowl in Indonésia is known as the bekisar.

Kasintu jaluna keur kongkorongok diluhureun tangkal

Kahirupan kasintu mimiti nyanghareupan ancaman daria tayalian baris (tumpur) ku lantaran mahabuna hibridisasi/kawin silang spesies hayam pikeun dikukut dina ukuran anu kacida lobana[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Dicutat tina[édit | édit sumber]

  1. BirdLife International (2012). "Gallus gallus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Diakses tanggal 26 November 2013. 
  2. a b Eriksson, Jonas; Larson, Greger; Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Tixier-Boichard, Michele; Strömstedt, Lina; Wright, Dominic; Eriksson J, Larson G, Gunnarsson U, Bed'hom B, Tixier-Boichard M et al. (23 January 2008), "Identification of the Yellow Skin Gene Reveals a Hybrid Origin of the Domestic Chicken", PLoS Genetics (PLoS Genet), preprint (2008): e10, doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000010.eor 
  3. a b Storey, A.A.; (2012). "Investigating the global dispersal of chickens in prehistory using ancient mitochondrial DNA signatures". PLoS ONE 7 (7): e39171. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039171. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0039171. 
  4. Wild Singapore: Red Junglefowl, updated 9th Oct, accessed 1st January 2014.
  5. Collias, N. E. (1987), "The vocal repertoire of the red junglefowl: A spectrographic classification and the code of communication", The Condor 89 (3): 510–524, JSTOR 1368641, doi:10.2307/1368641 
  6. Evans, C. S.; Macedonia, J. M.; Marler, P. (1993), "Effects of apparent size and speed on the response of chickens, Gallus gallus, to computer-generated simulations of aerial predators", Animal Behaviour 46 (1): 1–11, doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1156 
  7. Animal Behaviour Lab Dr Chris Evans, Galliform.bhs.mq.edu.au, 15 November 2006, diakses tanggal 22 April 2009 
  8. Home, Galliform.bhs.mq.edu.au, diakses tanggal 22 April 2009 
  9. http://galliform.bhs.mq.edu.au/~david
  10. Macquarie University – Centre for the Integrative Study of Animal Behaviour, Galliform.bhs.mq.edu.au, 15 August 2008, diakses tanggal 22 April 2009 
  11. Arshad MI; M Zakaria; AS Sajap; A Ismail (2000), "Food and feeding habits of Red Junglefowl" (PDF), Pakistan J. Bio. Sci. 3 (6): 1024–1026, doi:10.3923/pjbs.2000.1024.1026 
  12. Brinkley, Edward S., and Jane Beatson. "Fascinating Feathers ." Birds. Pleasantville, N.Y.: Reader's Digest Children's Books, 2000. 15. Print.
  13. I. Lehr Brisbin, Jr., Concerns for the genetic integrity and conservation status of the red junglefowl, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (with permission from SPPA Bulletin, 1997, 2(3):1-2): FeatherSite, diakses tanggal 19 September 2007 
  14. Society for the Preservation of Poultry Antiquities 
  15. Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) page & links 
  16. Tomas P. Condon, Morphological and Behavioral Characteristics of Genetically Pure Indian Red Junglefowl, Gallus gallus murghi, diakses tanggal 19 September 2007 
  17. Hawkins, W.P. (n.d.). Carolinas/Virginia Pheasant & Waterfowl Society. Red Junglefowl – Pure Strain, Cvpws.com, diakses tanggal 19 September 2007 
  18. Gautier, Z. 2002. "Gallus gallus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed September 19, 2007, Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu, diakses tanggal 22 April 2009 
  19. Genetic invasion threatens red jungle fowl, Wildlife Trust of India, New Delhi, 9 January 2006, diakses tanggal 19 September 2007 
  20. "Red Junglefowl genetically swamped", Tragopan No. 12, p. 10, World Birdwatch 22 (2), 1 June 2000, diakses tanggal 19 September 2007, According to some scientists, truly wild populations of the Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus are either extinct or in grave danger of extinction due to introgression of genes from domestic or feral chickens 
  21. "Red Junglefowl – Species factsheet: Gallus gallus", BirdLife Species Factsheet (BirdLife International), 2007, diakses tanggal 20 September 2007 
  22. Peterson, A.T. & I.L. Brisbin, Jr. (1999), "Genetic endangerment of wild red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)", Bird Conservation International 9: 387–394, doi:10.1017/s0959270900002148 
  23. Brisbin, I. L., Jr. (1969), "Behavioral differentiation of wildness in two strains of Red Junglefowl (abstract)", Am. Zool. 9: 1072 

Tutumbu kaluar[édit | édit sumber]

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