Fluor

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Fluorine, 9F
Citakan:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Liquid fluorine (at extremely low temperatures)
Fluorine
Ucapan
Alotropalpha, beta
Katémbonggas: very pale yellow
liquid: bright yellow
solid: alpha is opaque, beta is transparent
Beurat atom baku Ar, std(F)18.998403163(6)[1]
Nomer massaF:
Fluorine in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


F

Cl
oxygenfluorineneon
Atomic number (Z)9
Golongangroup 17 (halogens)
Periodeperiod 2
Blokp-block
Kategori unsur  Reactive nonmetal
Konpigurasi éléktron[He] 2s2 2p5[2]
Éléktron per kulit2, 7
Pasipatan pisik
Pase at STPF: Gas
Titik lé'éh(F2) 53.48 K ​(−219.67 °C, ​−363.41 °F)[3]
Titik golak(F2) 85.03 K ​(−188.11 °C, ​−306.60 °F)[3]
Dénsitas (at STP)1.696 g/L[4]
when liquid (at b.p.)1.505 g/cm3[5]
Titik tripel53.48 K, ​90 kPa[3]
Titik kritis144.41 K, 5.1724 MPa[3]
Heat of vaporization6.51 kJ/mol[4]
Molar heat capacityCp: 31 J/(mol·K)[5] (at 21.1 °C)
Cv: 23 J/(mol·K)[5] (at 21.1 °C)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 38 44 50 58 69 85
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−1 (oxidizes oxygen)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 3.98[2]
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1681 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 3374 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 6147 kJ/mol
  • (more)[6]
Covalent radius64 pm[7]
Van der Waals radius135 pm[8]
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of fluorine
Other properties
Natural occurrenceF: Primordial
Crystal structurecubic
Cubic crystal structure for fluorine
Thermal conductivity0.02591 W/(m·K)[9]
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic (−1.2×10−4)[10][11]
CAS Number7782-41-4[2]
History
Namingafter the mineral fluorite, itself named after Latin fluo (to flow, in smelting)
DiscoveryAndré-Marie Ampère (1810)
First isolationHenri Moissan[2] (June 26, 1886)
Named byHumphry Davy
Main isotopes of fluorine[12]
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
18F trace 109.8 min β+ (97%) 18O
ε (3%) 18O
19F 100% stable
| references
Flour cair

Fluor nyaéta hiji unsur kimia dina tabél périodik anu miboga simbul F jeung nomor atom 9.[13] Fluor mangrupa gas halogén racunan univalen, warnana konéng-héjo pias, jeung mangrupa unsur pangréaktifna sarta miboga éléktronégativitas pangluhurna.[14] Fluor gampang ngawangun sanyawa jeung ampir sakabéh unsur séjénna, malah mah jeung gas mulya ogé siga kripton, xénon, sarta radon.[14] Saking réaktifna, kaca, logam, cai, jeung zat lianna ogé bakal kabeuleum sarta hurung caang dina diréaksikeun jeung gas fluor.[14] Dina larutan, fluor biasana kajadian minangka ion fluorida F-.[14] Fluorida mangrupa sanyawa anu kajadian antara fluorida jeung unsur lian nu muatanna positif.[14] Produksi fluor taunan dunya kurang leuwih 4 yuta ton.[14] Panghasil fluorit utama dunya di antarana nyaéta Tiongkok, Méksiko jeung Éropah Kulon.[14] Fluor kajadian sacara alami di kerak marcapada jeung bisa kapanggih dina batuan, batu bara, jeung taneuh liat.[14] Fluor mangrupa unsur ka-13 pang-ngaleuyana di kerak marcapada ku konséntrasi 950 ppm.[14] Taneuh ngandung kira-kira 330 ppm fluor.[14] Sedengkeun taneuh anu kakontaminasi bisa ngandung fluor nepi ka 3500 ppm.[14] Fluorida hidrogen biasa dileupaskeun ka udara liwat prosés pameuleuman dina industri.[14] Fluorida anu aya di udara dina antukna mah bakal turun kana taneuh atawa kana cai.[14]

Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]

  1. Meija, Juris; Coplen, Tyler B.; Berglund, Michael; Brand, Willi A.; De Bièvre, Paul; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Irrgeher, Johanna et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. a b c d Jaccaud et al. 2000, p. 381.
  3. a b c d Haynes 2011, p. 4.121.
  4. a b Jaccaud et al. 2000, p. 382.
  5. a b c Compressed Gas Association 1999, p. 365.
  6. Dean 1999, p. 4.6.
  7. Dean 1999, p. 4.35.
  8. Matsui 2006, p. 257.
  9. Yaws & Braker 2001, p. 385.
  10. Mackay, Mackay & Henderson 2002, p. 72.
  11. Cheng et al. 1999.
  12. Chisté & Bé 2011.
  13. "Tabel Periodik (Indonesian Periodic Table)". PTable. Diakses tanggal 3/12/2016. 
  14. a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Fluor (F): Fakta, Sifat, Kegunaan & Efek Kesehatannya". Amazine. Diakses tanggal 3/12/2016. 
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