Piit peking

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Piit Peking
Lonchura punctulata (Nagarhole, 2004).jpg
Piit déwasa subspésiés punctulata di Taman Nasional Nagarhole, India
Scaly breasted Munia (Immature)- Kolkata- I IMG 3535.jpg
Piit rumaja subspésiés punctulata di Kolkata, India
Status konservasi
Klasifikasi ilmiah
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Spésiés:
L. punctulata
Ngaran binomial
Lonchura punctulata
(L., 1753)

Piit peking; bondol peking; (Lonchura punctulata) nyaéta manuk leutik anu asalna tina kulawarga Estrildidae.[2]Manuk ieu kahakananna sisikian, kayaning siki: paré, kunyit, sorgum, jujukutan, jeung sajabana. [2]

Ngaran séjén[édit | édit sumber]

Urang Jawa nyebutna emprit peking, prit peking; urang Sunda nyebutna piit peking atawa manuk peking, dumasar ogé kana sorana.[3] [4] Di Malaysia ieu manuk disebutna pipit pinang, dina basa Inggris dipiwanohna Scaly-breasted Munia pedah aya kelir borontok dina bulu palebah hariguna anu katempo kawas sisit.[5]

Ciri mandiri[édit | édit sumber]

Manuk piit peking déwasa, Bogor.

Pangawakanna leutik, panjang tina pamatuk nepika tungtung buntut kurang leuwih 11 cm. Bulu dina beuheung, punduk jeung tonggong kelirna coklat, aya guguritan ngora katempo samar-samar sarta bulu puhuna bodas. Tikorona coklat semu beureum, palebah handapna bodas, katempo guguratan kawas sisik kelirna coklat palebah harigu nepi ka sisi awakna.[6] Palebah beuteung handap nepika bujurna bodas.[7] Manuk anu ngora kénéh harigu jeung beuteungna mibanda bulu coklat kotor, teu aya sisitan kawas anu déwasa. [8] Jalu jeung bikang henteu beda dina wanda bulu jeung pangawakanna.[9] Hihideung panonna coklat poék; pamatuk kawas manuk piit biasana kelirna kulawu semu biru; cékérna hideung semu kulawu.[6][10][11]

Tempat hirup jeung kabiasaan[édit | édit sumber]

Manuk anakna kénéh, Bogor.

Piit peking remen kapanggih hirup di padésaan nepika sisi kota, utamana anu deukeut jeung persawahan atawa tegalan. Kahakananna sabangsaning sisikian, jujukutan utamana kana pare[8]. Ku kituna piit peking remen katempo disawah, rungkun -rungkun jukut, tegalan jeung kebon.[12]


Tempona nyiar hakaneun hiber ngabring babarengan jeung pasanganna atawa ngabring jeung manuk baturna nu séjén, piit peking remen katempo saabringan areunteup dina rungkun jujukutan ngadon ngakan sikina, sakapeung katempo turun kana taneuh.[13] Piit peking ieu gerakanna rancingeus, kalayan henteu eureun disarada jeung padabaturna.[8][14]

Ieu manuk remen ogé katempo nyiar hakaneun pacampur jeung manuk jinis piit séjén, saperti piit, bondol (L. leucogastroides), jeung sajabana. [6] Mimitina ieu manuk katempo ngan sababaraha hiji wungkul, nincak usum panena ieu manuk téh bisa ngumpul dina jumlah anu loba malahan nepika aya ratusan. Katempo pisan mangsa usum meuting, ieu manuk hiber abrul-abrulan.[15]

Nempo jumlahna anu loba kawas kieu tangtu ngadatangkeun karuagian anu henteu saeutik pikeun para patani.[16] Piit peking ogé remen katempo eunteup di kebon-kebon, buruan imah, ogé sisi jalan. Saperti ngarana, di Malaysia, ieu manuk remen areunteup dina tangkal jambé atawa palma séjéna, tangkal-tangkal anu ngarungkun jangkung, paragi ieu manuk nyarieun sayang.[17] Sayangna bulenek kawas ball, dijieun tina jujukutan, diperenahkeun dinu buni kahalangan ku dangdauna jeung régang.[8] Endogna bodas, aya 4-6(-10) siki, ukuranna 15 x 11 mm ngendogna teuaya usumna/endogan sapanjang taun, disileungleuman salila 16 poé kakara megar anakna.[18][19][20]

Manuk piit peking loba kapanggih hirup ti mimiti sisi basisir nepika palebah tonggoheun 1.800 m dpl.[6], malahan nepi ka 2.200 m di Lombok jeung 2.300 m di Timor[21][22]


Sub spésiés jeung habitatna==[édit | édit sumber]

Piit peking loba kapanggih di Asia kidul jeung Asia Tenggara kalawan mibanda 12 subspésiés, tayalian:

  1. L. p. punctulata (Linnaeus, 1758), nyebar di nagara Nepal nepi la Sikkim, India jeung Sri Lanka
  2. L. p. subundulata (Godwin-Austen, 1874), Nyebar ti mimiti wetan India (Assam) nepi ka Bhutan jeung bagean kulon Myanmar
  3. L. p. yunnanensis (Parkes, 1958), Nyebar di wetaneun Myanmar jeung kulon ngidul China
  4. L. p. topela (Swinhoe, 1863), Nyebar di China kidul nepika kaler Thailand, Indochina, Hainan, jeung Taiwan
  5. L. p. cabanisi (Sharpe, 1890), nyebar di Filipina (Luzon, Mindoro, Panay, Cebu, Calauit jeung Palawan)
  6. L. p. fretensis (Kloss, 1931), nyebar di kiul Thailand jeung Semenanjung Malaysia nepi ka Sumatra jeung pulo-pulo sabudeureunna
  7. L. p. nisoria (Temminck, 1830), nyebar ti Jawa, Bali, Lombok, jeung Sumbawa
  8. L. p. baweana (Hoogerwerf, 1963), endemik di pulo Bawean (Laut Jawa)
  9. L. p. holmesi (Restall, 1992), endemik di kidul ngulon Borneo (Kalimantan)
  10. L. p. sumbae (Mayr, 1944), éndemik/pituin di Pulao Sumba
  11. L. p. blasii (Stresemann, 1912), nyebar di Flores, Timor, Kapuloan Tanimbar, jeung kalpuloan Nusa Tenggara
  12. L. p. particeps (Riley, 1920), éndemik di Pulo Sulawesi. [23][24]

Populasina nyebar dina distribusi anu lega dibedakeun ku variasi kelir bulu sareng pangawakanna, kurang leuwih aya 11 subspésiés anu dipikanyaho.[25] [26][27] Kaasup dijerona anu kapanggih hirup di i dataran Asia Kidul, ogé Pakistan,India , Nepal , Bangladés sareng Sri Lanka. Ieu spésiés kawasna pituin ti Asia.[28] Tapi jarang katempo hirup di Kashmir .[29][19]

Di luar daérah asli, ieu manuk anu hirup di daérah anu iklimna cocog. Populasi anu pindah ieu katitén an di Hindia Kulon (Puerto Rico ti saprak 1971) [30], Hawaii , Australia, Japan [31] sareng kidul Amérika Serikat utamina di Florida sareng California.[32][33] di Oahu, Hawaii , pandeuri katompo hirup bareng sareng Lonchura malacca.[34]


Galeri[édit | édit sumber]

Dicutat tina[édit | édit sumber]

  1. BirdLife International (2012). "Lonchura punctulata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Diakses tanggal 10 Juni 2014. 
  2. a b Moynihan, M & M F Hall (1954). "Hostile, Sexual, and Other Social Behaviour Patterns of the Spice Finch (Lonchura punctulata) in Captivity". Behaviour 7 (1): 33–76. 
  3. Beauchamp, G and Barbara Livoreil (1997). "The effect of group size on vigilance and feeding rate in spice finches (Lonchura punctulata)". Canadian Journal of Zoology 75: 1526–1531. doi:10.1139/z97-776. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/z97-776. 
  4. Giraldeau, L.A.; G. Beauchamp (1). "Food exploitation: searching for the optimal joining policy". Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14 (3): 102-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(98)01542-0,. Diakses pada 10 October 2012. 
  5. Pulliam, R. H. (1973). "On the advantages of flocking". J. Theor. Bio. 38: 419-422. 
  6. a b c d MacKinnon, J., K. Phillips, B. van Balen. 2000. Burung-burung di Sumatra, Jawa, Bali dan Kalimantan: 425. Seri Panduan Lapangan LIPI. Bogor:LIPI dan BirdLife IP.
  7. Sikdar M; A Kar and P Prakash (1992). "Role of humidity in the seasonal reproduction of male spotted munia, Lonchura punctulata". Journal of Experimental Zoology 264 (1): 82–84. doi:10.1002/jez.1402640112. 
  8. a b c d MacKinnon, J. 1993. Panduan Lapangan Pengenalan Burung-burung di Jawa dan Bali: 379. Yogyakarta:Gadjah Mada University Press.
  9. Dubois, Frédérique; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain (July 2004). "Reduced resource defence in an uncertain world: an experimental test using captive nutmeg mannikins". Animal Behaviour 68 (1): 21–25. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.06.025. 
  10. Davies, Nicholas (2012). An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology. Competing for Resources: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 130–131. 
  11. Barnard, C.J.; R.M. Sibly (May 1981). "Producers and scroungers: A general model and its application to captive flocks of house sparrows". Animal Behaviour 29 (2): 543-550. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(81)80117-0. 
  12. Stephens, DW (2007). A comprehensive guide to optimal foraging theory. Foraging: The University of Chicago Press. 
  13. Rieucau, G.; Giraldeau, L.-A. (12 February 2009). "Group size effect caused by food competition in nutmeg mannikins (Lonchura punctulata)". Behavioral Ecology 20 (2): 421–425. doi:10.1093/beheco/arn144. 
  14. Gauvin, Shawn; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain (2004). "Nutmeg mannikins ( Lonchura punctulata ) reduce their feeding rates in response to simulated competition". Oecologia 139 (1): 150–156. doi:10.1007/s00442-003-1482-2. 
  15. Gokula V (2001). "Nesting ecology of the Spotted Munia Lonchura punctulata in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary (South India)". Acta Ornithologica 36 (1): 1–5. 
  16. Mehta, P (1997). "Spotted Munia Lonchura punctulata feeding on scat?". Newsletter for Birdwatchers 37 (1): 16. http://www.archive.org/stream/NLBW37_1#page/n17/mode/1up. 
  17. Sharma RC; Bhatt D; Sharma RK (2004). "Breeding success of the tropical Spotted Munia Lonchura punctulata in urbanized and forest habitats". Ornithological Science 3 (2): 113–117. doi:10.2326/osj.3.113. http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/osj/3/2/3_113/_article. 
  18. Hoogerwerf, A. 1949. De Avifauna van de Plantentuin te Buitenzorg (Java): 112-3. Buitenzorg:Uitgave van de Kon. Plantentuin van Indonesië.
  19. a b Ali, S & S D Ripley (1999). Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 10 (2 ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 119–121. 
  20. Lamba, BS (1974). "Nest construction technique of the Spotted Munia, Lonchura punctulata". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 71 (3): 613–616. 
  21. Coates, B.J. & K.D. Bishop. 2000. Panduan Lapangan Burung-burung di Kawasan Wallacea: 185. Bogor:BirdLife IP - Dove Publ.
  22. Coolen, Isabelle; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain (1 October 2003). "Incompatibility between antipredatory vigilance and scrounger tactic in nutmeg mannikins, Lonchura punctulata". Animal Behaviour 66 (4): 657–664. doi:10.1006/anbe.2003.2236. 
  23. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, B.L. Sullivan, C. L. Wood, and D. Roberson (2013). The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.8. The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 
  24. Abbass, D., Rais, M., Ghalib, S.A. and Khan, M.Z. (2010). "First Record of Spotted Munia (Lonchura punctulata) from Karachi". Pakistan J. Zool. 42 (4): 503–505. 
  25. Giraldeau, L-A.; Beauchamp, G. (1999). "Food exploitation: searching for the optimal joining policy". Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14 (3): 102–106. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(98)01542-0. 
  26. Coolen, Isabelle; Luc-Alain Giraldeau, Myriam Lavoie (May 2001). "Head position as an indication of producer and scrounger tactics in a ground-feeding bird". Animal Behaviour 61 (5): 895-903. doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1678. 
  27. Coolen, Isabelle (2002). "Increasing foraging group size increases scrounger use and reduces searching efficiency in nutmeg mannikins ( Lonchura punctulata )". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 52 (3): 232–238. doi:10.1007/s00265-002-0500-4. 
  28. Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-del-Valle V, Gomez-Prieto P, Reguera R, Parga-Lozano C, Serrano-Vela I (2009). "Estrildinae Finches (Aves, Passeriformes) from Africa, South Asia and Australia: a Molecular Phylogeographic Study". The Open Ornithology Journal 2: 29–36. doi:10.2174/1874453200902010029. http://chopo.pntic.mec.es/biolmol/publicaciones/Estrildinae_finches_2009.pdf. 
  29. Akhtar,SA; Rao,Prakash; Tiwari,JK; Javed, Salim (1992). "Spotted Munia Lonchura punctulata (Linn.) from Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 89 (1): 129. 
  30. Moreno, JA (1997). "Review of the Subspecific Status and Origin of Introduced Finches in Puerto Rico". Caribbean Journal of Science 33 (3–4): 233–238. 
  31. Eguchi K & H E Amano (2004). "Invasive Birds in Japan". Global Environmental Research 8 (1): 29–39. http://www.airies.or.jp/publication/ger/pdf/08-01-04.pdf. 
  32. Duncan RA (2009). "The status of the nutmeg mannikin (Lonchura punctulata) in the extreme western panhandle of Florida". Florida Field Naturalist 37 (3): 96–97. http://www.fosbirds.org/sites/default/files/FFNs/FFN373p096.pdf. 
  33. Garrett, KL (2000). "The juvenile nutmeg mannikin: identification of a little brown bird". Western Birds 31 (2): 130–131. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/wb/v31n02/p0130-p0131.pdf. 
  34. Moulton, M. P., L. J. S. Allen, D. K. Ferris. (1992). "Competition, resource use and habitat selection in two introduced Hawaiian Mannikins". Biotropica 24 (1): 77–85. doi:10.2307/2388475. 

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