Asia Tenggara

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Asia Tenggara

Topograpi Asia Tenggara.
Area 4,523,000 km²
Populasi 568,300,000
Kapadetan 126 per km²
Nagara 11
Teritori 12
GDP $900 miliar (exchange rate)
$2.8 triliun (purchasing power parity)
GDP per kapita $1,584 (exchange rate)
$4,927 (purchasing power parity)
Basa Indonesia, Filipina, Vietnam,Thai, Burma, Malayu, Khmer, Lao, Tetum, Nikobar, Mandarin, Inggris, Tamil, Portugis, Bengali, Hindi, Malayalam, Punjabi, Telugu, Jawa, Sunda, Tagalog, Cebuano, Madura, Kanton, Min, Taiwan (Min Nan), jeung lianna
Zona wanci UTC +9:00 (Indonesia) tepi ka UTC +5:30 (Kapuloan Andaman jeung Nikobar)
Kota gede Jakarta
Manila
Bangkok
Ho Chi Minh City
Surabaya
Kuala Lumpur
Singapura
Hanoi
Bandung
Medan
Yangon

Asia Tenggara atawa Asia Wétan Kidul nyaeta hiji subwewengkon di Asia, nu ngawengku nagara-nagara nu sacara geografis aya di kiduleun China, wetaneun India sarta kalereun Australia. Wewengkon Asia Tenggara ngampar dina interseksi pelat geologis, kalayan aktivitas seismik katut vulkanik nu rongkah.

Asia Tenggara ngawengku dua wewengkon geografis: Asia daratan, jeung island arc katut kapuloan nu aya di wetan jeung wetan kiduleunnana. Bagean daratan kaasup Kamboja, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand jeung Vietnam; nu populasina utamana urang Tai jeung urang Austroasiatik; ageman nu dominan nyaeta Buda, tuluy Islam. Bagean maritim kaasup Brunei, Timor Wetan,[1] Indonesia, Malaysia, Pilipina jeung Singapura. Urang Austronesia nu panglobana aya di wewengkon ieu; ageman nu dominan nyaeta Islam,tuluy Kristen[rujukan?].

Babagian[édit | sunting sumber]

Pulitis[édit | sunting sumber]

Asia Tenggara mindeng nujul kana hiji wewengkon nu ngawengku nagara-nagara di handap ieu, sok sanajan ari dina prak-prakannana mah, boh sacara umum atawa husus, wewengkonna bisa leuwih heureut atawa leuwih lega.

Sakabeh nagara nu disebutkeun di luhur nyaeta anggota Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), kajaba Timor Wetan, nu mangrupakeun calon keneh. Wewengkon ieu, babarengan jeung bagean Asia Kidul, samemehna katelah Indies Wetan atawa basajanna mah disebut Indies.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

Although politically external territories of Australia, Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands are culturally part of Southeast Asia. Meanwhile, certain islands in the South China Sea are currently disputed. Papua, however, is politically part of Southeast Asia through Indonesia, although geographically it is often considered as part of Oceania.

Geograpis[édit | sunting sumber]

Lokasi Asia Tenggara.[2]

Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two regions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia (or Indochina) and the Maritime Southeast Asia (or the Malay Archipelago Malay: Nusantara).

Asia Tenggara Daratan kaasup:

Asia Tenggara Maritim kaasup:

Gunung seuneun Mayon.

Malaysia dibagi ku Laut Cina Selatan. Semenanjung Malaysia di daratan sementara Malaysia Timur di Kalimantan, pulau pangageungna di wilayah iyeu. Tapi, Malaysia sering dianggap nagara kapulauan. oge, bagean timur Indonesia jeung Timor Timur (timur garis Wallace) dianggap bagean geografis ti Oceania.

Gunung Kinabalu.

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are considered part of Southeast Asia. Hainan Island is sometimes considered both East Asian and Southeast Asian.

Sajarah[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Sajarah Asia Tenggara.
Arsitektur dina gaya Sriwijaya.

Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao (Nusantara) maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam to the rest of the archipelago as early as 5000 BCE to 1 CE.[3]

The peoples of Southeast Asia, especially those of Austronesian descent, have been seafarers for thousands of years, some reaching the island of Madagascar. Their vessels, such as the vinta, were ocean-worthy. Magellan's voyage records how much more manœuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships.[4]

Passage through the Indian Ocean aided the colonization of Madagascar by the Malay race, as well as commerce between West Asia and Southeast Asia. Gold from Sumatra is thought to have reached as far west as Rome.

Originally most people were animist. This was later replaced by Brahmanic Hinduism. Theravada Buddhism soon followed in 525. In 1400s, Islamic influences began to enter. This forced the last Hindu court in Indonesia to retreat to Bali.

In Mainland South East Asia, Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand retained the Theravada form of Buddhism, brought to them from Sri Lanka. This type of Buddhism was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture.

Indianized kingdom[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Indianized kingdom.

Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the second century BCE onwards. Prior to the 13th century, Buddhism and Hinduism were the main religions in Southeast Asia.

The Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra existed around 200 BCE.

The history of the Malay-speaking world begins with the advent of Indian influence, which dates back to at least the 3rd century BC. Indian traders came to the archipelago both for its abundant forest and maritime products and to trade with merchants from China, who also discovered the Malay world at an early date. Both Hinduism and Buddhism were well established in the Malay Peninsula by the beginning of the 1st century CE, and from there spread across the archipelago.

Cambodia was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Funan kingdom. Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empire's official religions. Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to Brahma in the world. Angkor Wat is also a famous Hindu temple of Cambodia.

The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peak when it dominated other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali and southern of the Philippines.

The Cholas excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of Kedah and the Srivijaya, and their continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire, enabled them to influence the local cultures. Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.[5]

Perdagangan Cina[édit | sunting sumber]

Chinese merchants have traded with the region for a long time as evidence of Magellan's voyage records that Brunei possessed more cannon than the European ships so it appears that the Chinese fortified them.[4]

Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Han Li Po to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan. Han Li Po's well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina, where her retinue settled.

The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca, which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa, who in 1500 wrote "He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice".

Western colonization[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Tingali ogé: Imperialism in Asia jeung The Ugly American.

Western influence started to enter in the 1500s, with the arrival of the Portuguese and Spanish in Moluccas and the Philippines.

European explorers were reaching Southeast Asia from the west and from the east. A regular trade between the sailing ships east, from the Indian Ocean and south from mainland Asia provided goods in return for natural products such as honey and hornbill beaks from the islands of the archipelago.

Europeans brought Christianity allowing Christian missionaries to become widespreaded. Siam also allowed Western science and technology to enter their country. China traded a lot of rice.

Kiwari[édit | sunting sumber]

Regional integration through ASEAN is one of the goals of Southeast Asian countries today.

Currently, there are various conflicting territorial and/or maritime claims, both among these countries and even involving other parties (notably both Chinas in the case of the Spratly Islands).

Geograpi[édit | sunting sumber]

Hạ Long Bay, a Natural World's Heritage Site in Vietnam

Geologically, the Malay archipelago is one of the most active vulcanological regions in the world. Geological uplifts in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia on the island of Borneo with a height of 4,101 metres (13,455 ft) and also Puncak Jaya in Papua, Indonesia at 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), on the island of New Guinea.

Sabudeureun[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Tingali ogé: Austronesia.

The Australasian continental plate defines a region adjacent to Southeast Asia, which is also politically separated from the countries of Southeast Asia. But a cultural touch point lies between Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian region of Papua, which shares the island of New Guinea with Papua New Guinea. A considerable colonization effort of Papua is underway. o

Iklim[édit | sunting sumber]

The climate of Southeast Asia is mainly tropical – hot and humid all year round. There is a lot of rainfall. Southeast Asia has a wet and dry season caused by seasonal shift in winds or monsoon. The tropical rain belt causes additional rainfall during the monsoon season. The rain forest is the second largest on earth (with the Amazon being the largest). Exception to this type of climate and vegetation is the mountain areas in the northern region, where high altitudes lead to milder temperatures and drier landscape.

Lingkungan[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Tingali ogé: Southeast Asian coral reefs jeung Gurat Wallac.
Munding cai.
Wallace's hypothetical line between Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna.

The animals of Southeast Asia are diverse; on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, the Orangutan (man of the forest), the Asian Elephant, the Malayan tapir, the Sumatran Rhinoceros and the Bornean Clouded Leopard can be also found. The bearcat can be found on the island of Palawan.

The Water Buffalo, both domesticated and wild, can be found all over Southeast Asia, where once it was found in much greater extent in South Asia, for example. The mouse deer, a small tusked deer as large as a toy dog or cat, can be found on Sumatra, Borneo and Palawan Islands. The gaur, a gigantic wild ox larger than even wild Water buffalo, is found mainly in Indochina and Malaysia.

Birds such as the peafowl and drongo live in this subregion as far east as Indonesia. The babirusa, a four-tusked pig, can be found in Indonesia as well. The hornbill was prized for its beak and used in trade with China. The horn of the rhinoceros, not part of its skull, was prized in China as well.

The Indonesian Archipelago is split by the Wallace Line. This line runs along what is now known to be a tectonic plate boundary, and separates Asian (Western) species from Australasian (Eastern) species. The islands between Java/Borneo and Papua form a mixed zone, where both types occur, known as Wallacea.

Great Hornbill - bird from Southeast Asia

The shallow waters of the Southeast Asian coral reefs have the highest levels of biodiversity for the world's marine ecosystems, where coral, fish and molluscs abound. The whale shark can be found in the South China Sea.

The trees and other plants of the region are tropical; in some countries where the mountains are tall enough, temperate-climate vegetation can be found. These rainforest areas are currently being logged-over, especially in Borneo.

While Southeast Asia is rich in flora and fauna, Southeast Asia is facing severe deforestation which causes habitat loss for various endangered species such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger. At the same time, haze has been a regular occurrence. The worst regional haze occurred in 1998 in which multiple countries were covered with thick haze. In reaction, several countries in Southeast Asia signed the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in order to combat haze pollution.

Ekonomi[édit | sunting sumber]

The region is also one of the most productive in manufacturing microprocessors. Reserves of oil are also present in the region.

Seventeen telecommunications companies have contracted to build a new submarine cable to connect Southeast Asia to the U.S.[6] This is to avoid the disruption caused by the cutting of the undersea cable from Taiwan to the U.S. in a recent earthquake.

Demograpi[édit | sunting sumber]

Southeast Asia has an area of approx. 4,000,000 km² (1.6 million sq miles). As of 2004, more than 593 million people lived in the region, more than a fifth of them (125 million) on the Indonesian island of Java, the most densely populated large island in the world. The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia and varies by country. Some 30 million overseas Chinese also live in Southeast Asia, most prominently in Christmas Island, Malaysia, Singapura, Indonesia jeung Thailand, sarta oge, Hoa, di Vietnam.

Golongan seler[édit | sunting sumber]

According to a recent Stanford genetic study, the Southeast Asian population is far from being homogeneous. Although primarily descendants of Austronesian, Tai, and Mon-Khmer-speaking immigrants who migrated from Southern China during the Bronze Age and Iron Age, there are overlays of Arab, Chinese, Indian, European, Polynesian and Melanesian genes. The Philippines has Asia's largest Eurasian (mixed ancestry), American and Amerasian population, and is continuously growing.

There are also large pockets of intermarriage between indigenous Southeast Asians and those of Chinese descent. They form a substantial part of everyday life in countries such as Thailand and the Philippines. Indonesia and Malaysia also has a few mixed Southeast Asian-Chinese populations.

Ageman[édit | sunting sumber]

Countries in Southeast Asia practise many different religions. Mainland SEA countries, which are, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, practise predominantly Buddhism. Singapore is also predominantly Buddhist. In the Malay Archipelago, people living in Malaysia, western Indonesia and Brunei practise mainly Islam. Christianity is predominant in the Philippines, eastern Indonesia and East Timor. The Philippines has the largest Roman Catholic population followed by Vietnam, both ex-colonies of European powers.

The religious composition for each country is as follows. Some values are taken from the CIA Factbook:[7]

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Animisme, Buda, Kristen, Hindu, Islam, Sikh
Brunei Islam (67%), Buda (13%), Kristen (10%), lianna (indigenous beliefs, etc) (10%)
Kamboja Buda Theravada (93%), lianna (animisme, jsb) (7%)
Pulo Christmas Buda (36%), Islam (25%), Kristen (18%), Taoisme (15%), lianna (6%)
Kapuloan Cocos (Keeling) Islam Suni (80%), lianna (20%)
Timor Wetan Katolik Roma (90%), Islam (5%), Protestan (3%), lianna (Buda, Hindu, jsb) (2%)
Pulo Hainan Animisme, Konghucu, Buda Mahayana, Protestan, Katolik Roma, Taoisme, teu boga ageman, lianna
Indonesia Islam (86.1%), Protestan (5.7%), Katolik Roma (3%), Hindui (1.8%), lianna kaasup Buda, atawa teu jelas (3.4%)[8]
Laos Buda Theravada (60%), lianna (animisme, jsb) (40%)
Malaysia Islam (60.4%), Buda Mahayana (19.2%), Kristen (9.1%), Hindu (6.1%), Animisme (5.2%)
Myanmar Buda Theravada (89%), Islam (4%), Kristen (4%), Animisme (1%), lianna (2%)
Pilipina Katolik Roma (81%), Islam (5%), Evangelis (2.8%), Iglesia ni Cristo (2.2%), Aglipayan (2%), Kristen lianna (4.5%), lianna (animisme, Buda, teu boga ageman, jsb) (2.5%)
Singapura Buda (42.5%), Islam (15%), Taoisme (8%), Katolik Roma (4.5%), Hindu (4%), teu boga ageman (15%), Kristen lianna (10%), lianna (1%)
Kapuloan di Laut Cina Kidul Buda, Kristen, Konghucu, Islam, Taoisme, teu boga ageman
Thailand Buda Theravada (94.6%), Islam (4.6%), lianna (1%)
Viet Nam Buda Mahayana (78%), Katolik Roma (7%), Buda Theravada (5%), Cao Dai (2%), Protestan (1%), lianna (Animisme, Hoa Hao, Islam, teu boga ageman, jsb) (7%)

Religions and peoples are diverse in Southeast Asia and not one country is homogeneous. In the world's most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia, Hinduism is dominant on islands such as Bali. Christianity also predominates in Philippines, Papua and Timor. Pockets of Hindu population can also be found around Southeast Asia in Singapore, Malaysia etc. Garuda (Sanskrit: Garuḍa), the phoenix who is the mount (vahanam) of Vishnu, is a national symbol in both Thailand and Indonesia; in the Philippines, gold images of Garuda have been found on Palawan; gold images of other Hindu gods and goddesses have also been found on Mindanao. Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere, as Animism and local culture is incorporated into it. Christians can also be found throughout Southeast Asia; they are in the majority in East Timor and the Philippines, Asia's largest Christian nation. In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areas of Sarawak in East Malaysia and Papua in eastern Indonesia. In Myanmar, Sakka (Indra) is revered as a nat. In Vietnam, Mahayana Buddhism is practiced, which is influenced by native animism but with strong emphasis on Ancestor Worship.

Basa[édit | sunting sumber]

Each of the languages have been influenced by cultural pressures due to trade and historical colonization as well. Thus, for example, a Filipino, educated in English and Filipino, as well as in his native tongue (e.g., Visayan), might well speak another language, such as Spanish for historical reasons, or even Japanese for economic reasons; a Malaysian might well speak Malay, Chinese as well as English, again for economic reasons.

The language composition for each country is as follows: (The official languages have been bolded.)

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Nicobarese, Bengali, English, Hindi, Malayalam, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Shompen, Andamanese languages, others
Brunei Malayu, English, Chinese, indigenous Borneian dialects
Cambodia Khmer, Vietnamese, Chamic dialects, others
Christmas Island English, Chinese, Malay
Cocos (Keeling) Islands English, Cocos Malay
East Timor Tetum, Portuguese, Indonesian, English, Mambae, Makasae, Tukudede, Bunak, Galoli, Kemak, Fataluku, Baikeno, others
Hainan Island Mandarin (Chinese), Hainanese, Vietnamese, Hlai, Hmong, Tsat, Zhuang, others
Indonesia Indonesian, Acehnese, Batak, Sundanese, Javanese, Sasak, Tetum, Dayak, Minahasa, Toraja, Buginese, Halmahera, Ambonese, Ceramese, Dutch, Papuan languages, Chinese, others
Laos Lao, Vietnamese, Hmong, Miao, Mien, Dao, Shan, others
Malaysia Malay, English, Tamil, Chinese, other Indian languages, Sarawakian and Sabahan languages, others
Myanmar Burmese, Shan, Karen, Rakhine, Kachin, Chin, Mon, Chinese dialects, Indian languages, others
Philippines Tagalog, English, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Bicolano, Maranao, Maguindanao, Tausug, Kinaray-a, Chabacano, Lán-lâng-oē (Philippine Hokkien), Spanish, Arabic, other Visayan languages, and other Native Philippine languages
Singapore Mandarin (Chinese), Malay, Tamil, English, other Chinese dialects, other Indian languages, Arabic dialects, others
South China Sea Islands English, Filipino, Malay, Mandarin (Chinese), Vietnamese
Thailand Thai, Vietnamese, Lao, Shan, Lue, Phutai, Khmer, Mon, Mein, Hmong, Karen, Malay, Chinese dialects, others
Vietnam Vietnamese, Khmer, Cham, French creole, Tay, Muong, Nung, English, others

Budaya[édit | sunting sumber]

The Banaue Rice Terraces in Luzon Island, Philippines.

Rice paddy agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia for thousands of years, ranging across the subregion. Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the Banaue Rice Terraces in the mountains of Luzon in the Philippines. Maintenance of these paddies is very labor-intensive. The rice paddies are well-suited to the monsoon climate of the region.

Stilt houses can be found all over Southeast Asia, from Thailand and Laos, to Borneo, to Luzon in the Philippines, to Papua New Guinea.

The region has diverse metalworking. This include weaponry, such as the distinctive Kris, and musical instruments, such as the gamelan.

Pangaruh[édit | sunting sumber]

Calendars

Buddhist
Burmese
Chinese
Gregorian calendar
Hindu
Indonesian
Islamic
Thai (lunar)
Thai (solar)

The region's chief cultural influences have been from either China or India or both, with Vietnam considered by far the most Chinese-influenced.

As a rule, the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoples first ate with chopsticks; tea, as a beverage, can be found across the region. The fish sauces distinctive to the region tend to vary.

Seni[édit | sunting sumber]

"Buffalo boy plays a flute", Đông Hồ painting, Vietnam.

Dance in much of Southeast Asia also includes movement of the hands, as well as the feet. Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries. The Arts and Literature in some of South East Asia is quite influenced by Hinduism brought to them centuries ago.

In Indonesia and Malaysia, though they converted to Islam, they retained many forms of Hindu influenced practices, cultures, arts and literatures. An example will be the Wayang Kulit (Shadow Puppet) and literatures like the Ramayana. This is also true for mainland South East Asia (excluding Vietnam). Dance movements, Hindu gods, Arts were also fused into Thai, Khmer, Laotian and Burmese cultures.

In Vietnam, the Vietnamese share many cultural similarities with the Chinese.

Cuisine

Cambodia
Indonesia
Laos
Malaysia
Myanmar
Philippines
Singapore
Thailand
Vietnam

Musik[édit | sunting sumber]

Gamelan instruments are common in the region. These consists of gongs and other tonal and percussive music. Most of the traditional music is based on a pentatonic scale.

Tulisan[édit | sunting sumber]

Gambar:101 1048.jpg
Balinese writing on palm leaf. Artifacts can be seen in the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois.

The history of Southeast Asia has led to a wealth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region.

Originally, Indians were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through Brahmic forms of writing present in the region such as the Balinese script shown on split palm leaf called lontar, right:

The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper circa 100, in China. Note each palm leaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leaf, and bound by twine to the other sections. The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of Southeast Asia tended to be abugidas, until the arrival of the Europeans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This would have been more durable in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia.

Tempo oge[édit | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. United Nations
  2. This map primarily indicates ASEAN member countries, and therefore does not mark the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which are also geographically a part of Southeast Asia.
  3. Solheim, Journal of East Asian Archaeology, 2000, 2:1-2, pp. 273-284(12)
  4. a b Laurence Bergreen, Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe, HarperCollins Publishers, 2003, hardcover 480 pages, ISBN 0-06-621173-5
  5. The great temple complex at Prambanan in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture. See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 709
  6. Sean Yoong (April 27, 2007). "17 Firms to Build $500M Undersea Cable". International Business Times. Diakses pada 28 Juli 2007. 
  7. "Field Listing - Religions". CIA factbook. Diakses pada 24 Pébruari 2007. 
  8. Indonesia - The World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id.html

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]