Bolivia

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Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
Bulivya Mamallaqta
Wuliwya Suyu
Nagara Multibangsa Bolivia
Bandéra Bolivia Lambang Bolivia
Motto
¡La unión es la fuerza![1]
Lagu
Himno Nacional de Bolivia
Wiphala atawa Qulla Suyu:[2]
Wiphala Qulla Suyu
Location of Bolivia
Ibu kota Sucre (ibu kota konstitusional)[3][4]
19°2′S 65°15′W / 19.033°S 65.250°W / -19.033; -65.250
La Paz (ibu kota administratif)[4]
16°30′S 68°09′W / 16.500°S 68.150°W / -16.500; -68.150
Kota panggedéna Santa Cruz de la Sierra
17°48′S 63°10′W / 17.800°S 63.167°W / -17.800; -63.167
Basa resmi Basa Spanyol
Basa Quechua
Basa Aymara
jeung 34 basa pribumi lianna[5][6]
Grup étnis  55% Amerindian
(Quechua, Aymara
jeung 34 grup étnis lianna)
30% Mestizo
15% Bodas[7]
Démonim Bolivian
Pamaréntah Républik kahijian présidénsial
 -  Présidén Evo Morales
 -  Wakil Présidén Álvaro García
Kamerdikaan ti Spanyol 
 -  Didéklarasikeun 6 Agustus 1825 
 -  Diakuan 21 Juli 1847 
 -  Konstitusi nu ayeuna
7 Pébruari 2009 
Aréa
 -  Total 1.098.581 km² (ka-28)
424.163 mil² 
 -  Cai (%) 1,29
Populasi
 -  Perkiraan  2010 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg10.907.778[8] (ka-84)
 -  Sénsus 2001 8.280.184 
 -  Kapadetan 8,9 /km² (ka-220)
23 /mil²
GDP (PPP) Perkiraan 2010
 -  Total $47,882 milyar[9] 
 -  Per kapita $4.592[9] 
GDP (nominal) Perkiraan 2011
 -  Total $22,778 milyar[9] 
 -  Per kapita $2.143[9] 
Gini? (2009) 58,2[10] (luhur
HDI (2011) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0,663[11] (sedeng) (ka-108)
Mata uang Boliviano (BOB)
Zona wanci (UTC-4)
TLD Internét .bo
Kode telepon +591

Koordinat: 16°42′43″S 64°39′58″W / 16.712°S 64.666°W / -16.712; -64.666

Uyuni

Bolivia (Basa Spanyol: [boliˈβja]) resminia kawanoh salaku Nagara Multibangsa Bolivia[12][13] (basa Spanyol: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Basa Quechua: Bulivya Mamallaqta, Basa Aymara: Wuliwya Suyu), nyaéta hiji nagara nu dilingkung di Amérika Kidul beulah tengah. Nagara ieu wawatesan jeung Brasil di kalér jeung wétan, Paraguay sareng Argéntina di kidul, Chili di kidul-kulon, sarta Peru di kulon.

Babagian administratif[édit | sunting sumber]

Artikel utama: Departemén di Bolivia, Propinsi di Bolivia, Kotamadya di Bolivia, Kanton di Bolivia, Lemah Komunitas Pribumi

Bolivia dibagi kana 9 departemén, nu salajengna dibagi kana (total) 112 propinsi nu teras kana (total) 339 kotamadya jeung kana lemah komunitas pribumi.[14]

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Bacaan salajengna[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Alexander, R. J. (2005) A History of Organized Labor in Bolivia, Praeger Publishers Inc
  • Atkinson, D. (2007) Bradt Travel Guide: Bolivia, Bradt Travel Guides
  • Crabtree J., and Whitehead, L. (eds.; 2008) Unresolved Tensions: Bolivia Past and Present, University of Pittsburgh Press
  • Dangl, B. (2007) The Price of Fire: Resource Wars and Social Movements in Bolivia, AK Press
  • Farcau, B. W. (2000) The Ten Cents War: Chile, Peru and Bolivia in the War of the Pacific, 1879–1884, Greenwood Press
  • Farthing, L. and Kohl, B. (2006) Impasse in Bolivia: Neoliberal Hegemony and Popular Resistance, Zed Books
  • Gill, L. (2000) Teetering on the Rim: Global Restructuring, Daily Life, and the Armed Retreat of the Bolivian State, Columbia University Press
  • Goldstein, D. M. (2004) The Spectacular City: Violence and Performance in Urban Bolivia, Duke University Press
  • Gustafson, B. D. (2009) New Languages of the State: Indigenous Resurgence and the Politics of Knowledge in Bolivia , Duke University Press
  • Harten, S. (2011) The Rise of Evo Morales and the MAS, Zed Books
  • Healy, K. (2000) Llamas, Weavings and Organic Chocolate: Multicultural Grassroots Development in the Andes and Amazon of Bolivia, University of Notre Dame Press
  • Hylton, F. and Thomson, S. (2008) Revolutionary Horizons: Past and Present in Bolivian Politics, Verso
  • Jacobs, M. (2006) Ghost Train Through the Andes: On My Grandfather's Trail in Chile and Bolivia, John Murray
  • Jemio, L. C. (2001) Debt, Crisis Reform Bolivia: Biting the Bullet, Palgrave Macmillan
  • Klein, H. S. (1992) Bolivia: The Evolution of a Multi-Ethnic Society, Oxford University Press
  • Klein, H. S. (2011) A Concise History of Bolivia, Stanford University Press
  • Kunststaetter, D. and R. (2008) Footprint Handbook: Bolivia, Footprint Handbooks
  • Lazar, S. (2008) El Alto, Rebel City: Self and Citizenship in Andean Bolivia, Duke University Press
  • Lougheed, V. (2008) Understanding Bolivia: A Traveller's History, Harbour Publishing
  • McLaughlin, D. (2008) Bolivia, Fields Publishing
  • Morales, W. Q. (1992) Bolivia: Land of Struggle, Westview Press
  • Mutic, A.(2010) Lonely Planet Guide: Bolivia, Lonely Planet
  • Olivera, O. and Lewis, T. (2004) Cochabamba!: Water Rebellion in Bolivia, South End Press
  • Petras, J. (2005) Social Movements and State Power: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Pluto Press
  • Postero, N. G. (2006) Now We Are Citizens: Indigenous Politics in Post-multicultural Bolivia, Stanford University Press
  • Powers, W. (2006) Whispering in the Giant's Ear: A Frontline Chronicle from Bolivia's War on Globalization, Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Read, J. (2008) The Rough Guide to Bolivia, Rough Guides
  • Richards, K. (2009) Culture Smart!: Bolivia, Kuperard
  • Sivak, M. (2010) Evo Morales: The Extraordinary Rise of the First Indigenous President of Bolivia, Palgrave Macmillan
  • Spitzer, L. (1999) Hotel Bolivia: The Culture of Memory in a Refuge from Nazism, Hill & Wang
  • Stearman, A. M. (1989) Camba and Kolla: Migration and Development in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, University Press of Florida
  • Suzuki, T. (2010) Embodying Belonging: Racializing Okinawan Diaspora in Bolivia and Japan, niversity of Hawai'i Press
  • Webber, J. R. (2011) Rebellion and Reform in Bolivia, Haymarket Books
  • Webber, J. R. (2011) Red October: Left-Indigenous Struggles in Modern Bolivia, Brill Academic
  • Werner, R. J. (2009) Bolivia in Focus: A Guide to the People, Politics, and Culture, Interlink Publishing
  • Young, R. (2004) Marching Powder, Pan

Catetan suku jeung rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. "Central Bank of Bolivia". The Bolivian coin. Diakses pada 4 Agustus 2006. 
  2. Article 6, section II of the new Bolivian constitution establishes the Wiphala as a national symbol of Bolivia (along with the flag, national anthem and coat of arms). See "Bandera indígena boliviana es incluida como símbolo patrio en nueva Constitución", October 21, 2008, United Press International.
  3. "Artículo 6. I. Sucre es la Capital de Bolivia." (Article 6. I. Sucre is the capital of Bolivia.) Constitution of Bolivia
  4. a b CIA - The World Factbook
  5. Bolivian Constitution, Article 5-I: Son idiomas oficiales del Estado el castellano y todos los idiomas de las naciones y pueblos indígena originario campesinos, que son el aymara, araona, baure, bésiro, canichana, cavineño, cayubaba, chácobo, chimán, ese ejja, Guaraní, guarasu'we, guarayu, itonama, leco, machajuyai-kallawaya, machineri, maropa, mojeño-trinitario, mojeño-ignaciano, moré, mosetén, movima, pacawara, puquina, quechua, sirionó, tacana, tapieté, toromona, uru-chipaya, weenhayek, yawanawa, yuki, yuracaré y zamuco.
  6. "Kids Encyclopedia". Kids.britannica.com. 8 Pébruari 2009. Diakses pada 30 Agustus 2010. 
  7. "The World Factbook – Bolivia". CIA. Diakses pada 30 Maret 2010. 
  8. "Bolivia". World Gazetteer. Diarsipkan dari yang asli pada 19 Januari 2013. Diakses pada 7 Januari 2010. 
  9. a b c d "Bolivia". International Monetary Fund. Diakses pada 8 Désémber 2011. 
  10. "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Diakses pada 31 Agustus 2011. 
  11. "Human Development Report 2010". United Nations. 25 Nopémber 2011. Diakses pada 9 Nopémber 2011. 
  12. "WHO | Bolivia (Plurinational State of)". Who.int. 11 Méi 2010. Diakses pada 30 Agustus 2010. 
  13. "UNdata | country profile | Bolivia (Plurinational State of)". United Nations. 14 Nopémber 1945. Diakses pada 30 Agustus 2010. 
  14. Konstitusi Pulitis Bolivia, Pasal 269

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