Nikaragua

Ti Wikipédia, énsiklopédia bébas basa Sunda
Luncat ka: pituduh, sungsi
República de Nicaragua
Républik Nikaragua
Bandéra Nikaragua Lambang Nikaragua
Motto
En Dios Confiamos[1]
Lagu
"Salve a ti, Nicaragua"
Location of Nikaragua
Ibu kota
(jeung kota panggedéna)
Managua
Escudo de Managua.svg

12°9′N 86°16′W
Basa resmi Basa Spanyol
Basa régional Miskito, Rama, Sumo, Kréol Basisir Miskito, Garifuna, Kréol Kéi Rama
Grup étnis  69% Mestizo
17% Bodas
5% Amerindian
9% Hideung[2]
Démonim Nicaraguan, Nica, Pinolero
Pamaréntah Républik présidénsial
 -  Présidén Daniel Ortega
 -  Wakil Présidén Jaime Morales Carazo
Kamerdikaan ti Spanyol jeung Méksiko 
 -  Didéklarasikeun 15 Séptémber 1821 
 -  Diakuan 25 Juli 1850 
 -  ti Kakaisaran Méksiko Kahiji 1 Juli 1823 
 -  Révolusi 19 Juli 1979 
 -  Konstitusi nu ayeuna 9 Januari 1987[3] 
Aréa
 -  Total 130.373 km² (ka-97)
50.193 mil² 
 -  Cai (%) 7,14
Populasi
 -  Perkiraan  Sénsus 2010 5.891.199 (ka-110)
 -  Sénsus 2005 5.666.301 
 -  Kapadetan 42 /km² (ka-133)
114 /mil²
GDP (PPP) Perkiraan 2010
 -  Total $17,711 milyar[4] (ka-132)
 -  Per kapita $3.045[4] (ka-167)
GDP (nominal) Perkiraan 2010
 -  Total $6,551 milyar[4] 
 -  Per kapita $1.126[4] 
Gini? (2007) 40,1 (sedeng
HDI (2010) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0,565[5] (sedeng) (ka-115)
Mata uang Córdoba (NIO)
Zona wanci (UTC-6)
TLD Internét .ni
Kode telepon +505
1 Basa Inggris jeung basa pribumi di basisir Karibia ogé dipaké.
2 Informasi lobana dicandak ti CIA World Fact Book

Nikaragua, resmina Républik Nikaragua (basa Spanyol: República de Nicaragua, dilapalkeun: [reˈpuβlika ðe nikaˈɾaɣwa] ( dangukeun)), nyaéta hiji nagara di Amérika Tengah, wawatesan jeung Honduras di kalér jeung Kosta Rika. Samudra Pasifik aya di kuloneunnana, sarta Laut Karibia wétaneunnana.

Departemén jeung kotamadya[édit | sunting sumber]

Nikaragua mangrupa républik kahijian. Administratifna, Nikaragua dibagi kana 15 departemén (departamentos) jeung 2 wewengkon otonom. Departemén-departeménna teras dibagi kana (total 153) municipios (kotamadya). 2 wewengkon otonomna nyaéta 'Región Autónoma Atlántico Norte' jeung 'Región Autónoma Atlántico Sur', sok dilandi RAAN jeung RAAS; saméméh miboga otonomi ti 1985 wewengkon-wewengkn éta mangrupa hiji departemén, Zelaya.[6]

Departemén di Nikaragua
 Departemén Ibu kota
1 Bandéra Departemén Boaco Boaco Boaco
2 Bandéra Departemén Carazo Carazo Jinotepe
3 Bandéra Departemén Chinandega Chinandega Chinandega
4 Bandéra Departemén Chontales Chontales Juigalpa
5 Bandéra Departemén Estelí Estelí Estelí
6 Bandéra Departemén Granada Granada Granada
7 Bandéra Departemén Jinotega Jinotega Jinotega
8 Bandéra Departemén Leon Leon Leon
9 Bandéra Departemén Madriz Madriz   Somoto
 Departemén Ibu kota
10 Bandéra Managua Managua   Managua
11 Bandéra Departemén Masaya Masaya Masaya
12 Bandéra Departemén Matagalpa Matagalpa Matagalpa
13 Bandéra Departemén Nueva Segovia Nueva Segovia Ocotal
14 Bandéra Departemén Rivas Rivas Rivas
15 Bandéra Departemén Rio San Juan Río San Juan San Carlos
16 Bandéra Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte Bilwi
17 Bandéra Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur Bluefields

Komunikasi jeung média[édit | sunting sumber]

Kalobaannana sumber warta di Nikaragua nyaéta radio jeung TV. Aya Leuwih ti 100 stasion radio, kalobaannana di ibu kota, jeung sababaraha jaringan TV. TV kabel kasadia di loba wewengkon pakotaan.[7]

Média citak rupa-rupa jeung gerilyaan, ngawakilkeun posisi pro jeung anti-pamaréntah.

Citak[édit | sunting sumber]

La Prensa; El Nuevo Diario; Confidencial Varies; Hoy; Mercurio

Televisi[édit | sunting sumber]

Televicentro Canal 2; Multinoticias Canal 4; Telenica Canal 8; Canal 9; Canal 10; TVRED canal 11; Nicavision Canal 12; Viva Nicaragua Canal 13; VosTV Canal 14; 100% Noticias canal 15; CDNN Canal 23; Extraplus Canal 37

Radio[édit | sunting sumber]

Radio Corporacion; Radio Mundial; Radio Nicaragua (state-owned); Radio Sandino; Radio Pirata; Radio Maranata:; Estacion X; Radio joya; Radio Romantica; Radio Pachanguera; Radio Buenisima; Radio Disney: Radio Oldis

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Rujukan jeung catetan[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. Sakumaha katémbong dina Córdoba (uang kertas jeung logam); tempo Banco Central de Nicaragua pikeun contona
  2. "Nicaragua Demographics Profile 2011". Nicaragua. Index Mundi. 7 Juli 2011. Diakses pada 16 Juli 2011. 
  3. Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Nicaragua". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Diakses pada 16 Juli 2011. 
  4. a b c d International Monetary Fund (2011). "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Nicaragua". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2011. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. Diakses pada 16 Juli 2011. 
  5. United Nations Development Programme (2010). "Table 1: Human Development Index and its components". Human Development Report 2010 (20th Anniversary Edition) The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development. New York: United Nations. Diakses pada 16 Juli 2011. 
  6. "Background and socio-economic context" (PDF), p. 9. Disalin 2007-05-09.
  7. "Country profile: Nicaragua", BBC News, 2009-09-02. Disalin 2010-05-20.

Bacaan salajengna[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Asleson, Vern. (2004) Nicaragua: Those Passed By. Galde Press ISBN 1-931942-16-1
  • Babb, FE (2001). After revolution: mapping gender and cultural politics in neoliberal Nicaragua, Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Bayard de Volo, L (2001). Mothers of heroes and martyrs: gender identity politics in Nicaragua, 1979–1999, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Belli, G. The Country Under My Skin : A Memoir of Love and War, Garden City, N.Y: Anchor.
  • Bermann, K (1986). Under the big stick: Nicaragua and the United States since 1848, Boston: South End Press.
  • Bermúdez, E (Summer 1988). The Contras' Valley Forge: How I View the Nicaraguan Crisis, The Heritage Foundation.
  • Borge, T (1992). The patient impatience: from boyhood to guerilla: a personal narrative of Nicaragua's struggle for liberation, Willimantic, Connecticut: Curbstone Press.
  • Brown, TX (2001). The real Contra War: highlander peasant resistance in Nicaragua, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Brunnegger, S (2007). From Conflict to Autonomy in Nicaragua: Lessons Learnt, London: Minority Rights Group International.
  • Bugajski, J (1990). Sandinista communism and rural Nicaragua, New York: Praeger.
  • Charlip, JA. Cultivating Coffee: The Farmers of Carazo, Nicaragua, 1880–1930 (Ohio RIS Latin America Series), Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press.
  • Chomsky, Noam; Herman, Edward S. (2002). Manufacturing consent: the political economy of the mass media, New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Christian, S (1986). Nicaragua, revolution in the family, New York: Vintage Books.
  • Clark, GC (2001). With the Old Corps in Nicaragua, Novato, California: Presidio Press.
  • Colburn, FD (1991). My car in Managua, Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • (1980) Nicaragua Betrayed, Boston: Western Islands.
  • Field, LW (1999). The grimace of Macho Ratón: artisans, identity, and nation in late-twentieth century western Nicaragua, Durham, N.C: Duke University Press.
  • Gilbert, DL. Sandinistas: The Party And The Revolution, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Gobat, M. Confronting the American Dream: Nicaragua under U.S. Imperial Rule (American Encounters/Global Interactions), Durham, N.C: Duke University Press.
  • Gordon, EW (1998). Disparate diasporas: identity and politics in an African Nicaraguan community, Austin, Tex: University of Texas Press, Austin, Institute of Latin American Studies.
  • Gould, JL (1998). To die in this way: Nicaraguan Indians and the myth of mestizaje, 1880–1965, Durham, N.C: Duke University Press.
  • Hale, CR. Resistance and Contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan State, 1894–1987, Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
  • Heyck, DLD (1990). Life stories of the Nicaraguan revolution, New York: Routledge.
  • Horton, L. Peasants In Arms: War & Peace in the Mountains of Nicaragua, 1979–1994 (Ohio RIS Latin America Series), Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press.
  • Kagan, RA (1996). A twilight struggle: American power and Nicaragua, 1977–1990, New York: Free Press.
  • Kinzer, S (1991). Blood of Brothers: Life and War in Nicaragua, New York: Putnam.
  • Kinzer, S. Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq, New York: Times Books.
  • Kruckewitt, J. The Death of Ben Linder: The Story of a North American in Sandinista Nicaragua, New York: Seven Stories Press.
  • Lancaster, RN (1992). Life is hard: machismo, danger, and the intimacy of power in Nicaragua, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Macaulay, N. The Sandino Affair, Wacahoota Pr.
  • Morley, MH. Washington, Somoza and the Sandinistas: State and Regime in US Policy toward Nicaragua 1969–1981, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pardo-Maurer, R (1990). The Contras, 1980–1989: a special kind of politics, New York: Praeger.
  • Plunkett, H. In Focus Nicaragua a Guide to the People, Politics and Culture (In Focus Guides), Interlink Publishing Group.
  • Randall, M (1995). Sandino's daughters: testimonies of Nicaraguan women in struggle, New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.
  • Ratliff, William E.; Miranda, Roger. Civil War in Nicaragua: Inside the Sandinistas, New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A: Transaction Publishers.
  • Rushdie, S. The Jaguar Smile: A Nicaraguan Journey, Clearwater, Fla: Owl Books.
  • Sabia, D (1997). Contradiction and conflict: the popular church in Nicaragua, University: University of Alabama Press.
  • Sirias, S. Bernardo and the Virgin: A Novel, Evanston, Ill: Northwestern University Press.
  • Sklar, H (1988). Washington's war on Nicaragua, Boston: South End Press.
  • Taber, Michael; Bishop, Maurice; Marcus, Bruce (1983). Maurice Bishop speaks: the Grenada Revolution, 1979–83, New York: Pathfinder Press.
  • United Nations Development Programme (2010) Regional Human Development Report for Latin America and the Caribbean 2010: Acting on the future: breaking the intergenerational transmission of inequality . New York: United Nations. (Report).
  • Walker, TG. Nicaragua, 4th Edition, Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.
  • Walker, WJ (1985). The war in Nicaragua, Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  • Webb, G. Dark Alliance : The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion, New York: Seven Stories Press.
  • Zimmermann, M (2000). Sandinista: Carlos Fonseca and the Nicaraguan revolution, Durham, N.C: Duke University Press.

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg   Tingali ogé Nikaragua di Wikivoyage

Informasi umum

Koordinat: 13°N 85°W / 13, -85

Citakan:Nicaragua topics

Géografi lokal
Kaanggotaan internasional


Countries.png