Azawad

Ti Wikipédia, énsiklopédia bébas
Luncat ka: pituduh, sungsi
Azawad
ⴰⵣⴰⵓⴷ
أزواد
Nagara tanpa pangakuan kadaulatan

2012

Bandéra Azawad

Bandéta

Ibu kota Timbuktu (de jure)
Gao (saheulaan)
Basa Tuareg · Songhay · Fula
Arab Hassānīya
Perancis
Pamaréntahan Déwan Transisi Nagara Azawad
(Conseil de Transition de l'Etat de l'Azawad, CTEA)
Présidén
 - 2012 Bilal Ag Acherif
Wakil Présidén
 - 2012 Mahamadou Djeri Maïga
Jaman Konflik Mali Kalér
 - Proklamasi 6 April 2012
 - Patempuran Gao 27 Juni 2012
 - Ansongo labuh 12 Juli 2012
Peta Azawad, sakumaha diklaim ku MNLA: wewengkon kalawan mayoritas Tuareg ditandaan ku titik kulawu kolot, di kulon utamina dieusian ku Moor, di kidul ku masarakat Sub-Sahara.

Azawad, kawanoh ogé salaku Nagara Merdika Azawad[1] (Tuareg: ⴰⵣⴰⵓⴷ, Azawd; Basa Arab: دولة أزواد المستقلة[2], Dawlat Azawād al-Mustaqillah; Basa Prancis: État indépendant de l’Azawad[1]), nyaéta hiji wewengkon di Mali beulah kalér sarta ogé urut nagara nu teu diakuan, proklamasi kamerdikaan Azawad sacara sapihak dinyatakeun ku Gerakan Nasional Pangbébasan Azawad (MNLA) dina 2012 sanggeus hiji Pamberontakan Tuareg nyandak Tentara Mali kaluar ti wewengkon ieu. Azawad, sakumaha diklaim ku MNLA, ngawengku région Timbuktu, Kidal, Gao, jeung sabagian ti Région Mopti,[3] mibanda kira-kira 60 persén ti total wewengkon Mali. Azawad wawatesan jeung Burkina Faso di kidul, Mauritania di kulon jeung kalér-kulon, Aljazair di kalér jeung kalér-wétan, sarta Niger di wétan jeung tenggara, sareng Mali di kidul-kulon. Gao nyaéta kota panggedéna jeung ibu kota saheulaan,[4] samentawis Timbuktu mangrupa kota nu pangedéna kadua, sarta diniatkeun pikeun jadi ibu kota permanén.

Citakan:Contains Tifinagh text

Tingali ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

Pustaka[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Dubois, Felix (1896). Timbuctoo the mysterious, New York: Longmans..
  • Fage, J. D. (1956). An Introduction to the History of West Africa, 22, London: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hacquard, Augustin (1900). "Monographie de Tombouctou".. Also available from Gallica.
  • Hunwick, J. O. (2000). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume X, 2nd, 508–510, Brill..
  • Hunwick, John O. (2003). Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Sadi's Tarikh al-Sudan down to 1613 and other contemporary documents, Brill.. First published in 1999 as ISBN 90-04-11207-3.
  • Imperato, Pascal James (1989). Mali: A Search for Direction, Westview Press..
  • Kaba, Lansine (1981). "Archers, Musketeers, and Mosquitoes: The Moroccan Invasion of the Sudan and the Songhay Resistance (1591–1612)". Journal of African History 22 (4): 457–475..
  • Kirkby, Coel (2010). "Elusive Autonomy in Sub-Saharan Africa" Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts, 97–120, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • McIntosh, Roderick J. (2008), "Before Timbuktu: cities of the Elder World", The Meanings of Timbuktu (HSRC Press): hlm. 31–43, diakses pada 9 April 2012 
  • Saad, Elias N. (1983). Social History of Timbuktu: The Role of Muslim Scholars and Notables 1400–1900, Cambridge University Press..

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]


Gnome-globe.svg