Koréa Kidul

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(dipindahkeun ti Korea Kidul)
Luncat ka: pituduh, sungsi
대한민국
大韓民國
Daéhan Minguk

Républik Koréa
Bandéra Koréa Kidul Lambang Koréa Kidul
Bandéra Lambang
Motto: 널리 인간 세계를 이롭게 하라
(Mawa kauntungan keur kamanusan sacara lega, 弘益人間)
Lagu: Aegukga

Lokasi Koréa Kidul


Ibukota Seoul
37°35′N 127°0′E
Kota panggedéna Seoul
Basa resmi basa Koréa
Pamaréntahan Républik
 - Présidén Park Geun-hye
 - Perdana Mentri Jung Hong-won
Ngadegna  
 - Gojoseon 3 Oktober 2333 SM (numutkeun legenda) 
 - Déklarasi jadi Républik 1 Maret 1919 (de jure) 
 - Kamerdikaan 15 Agustus 1945 
 - Républik Munggaran 15 Agustus 1948 
Wewengkon  
 - Total 99,646 km² (108th)
  38,492 sq mi 
 - Cai (%) 0.3%
Populasi  
 - Perkiraan taun Juli 2005 47,817,000 (ka-25)
 - Sénsus taun 2000 45,985,289 source
 - Kapadetan 480/km² (ka-19)
1,274/sq mi 
GDP (PPP) 2005 (éstimasi)
 - Total $994.4 miliar (ka-14)
 - Perkapita $20,590 (ka-33)
HDI (2003) 0.901 (ka-28) – luhur
Mata uang Won Koréa Kidul (KRW)
Wewengkon wanci Korea Standard Time (UTC+9)
Internét TLD .kr
Kode telepon +82
National flower mugunghwa (Hibiscus syriacus)
Keur informasi leuwih detil ngeunaan sajarah Koréa, tempo Koréa.

Koréa Kidul, resmina dipikawanoh minangka Républik Korea, nyaéta nagara di Asia Wétan nu aya dina satengah bagian kidul tina Semenanjung Koréa. Ka kalérna diwatesan ku Koréa Kalér (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), nu saméméhna jadi hiji nagara Koréa kénéh nepi ka taun 1945. Ka kulonna, meuntasan Laut Konéng, ngampar Cina, sarta ka wétan kidulna, meuntasan Selat Koréa, ngampar nagara Jepang. Ampir satengahna pangeusi Koréa hirup di- atawa deukeuteun ibukota sarta kota panglegana, nyaéta Seoul, wewengkon métropolitan kadua panglegana di dunya.

Ti saprak ngadegna dina taun 1948, nagara ieu geus bajoang salila 35 taun sanggeus aya pagawéan Jepang, Perang Koréa, sarta puluhan taun dina pangaturan militér, pinanggih jeung lima parobahan konstitusi nu utama. Démonstrasi pro démokrasi dina taun 1980 mawa kana pamilu bébas dina taun 1987. Koréa Kidul kiwari ngagem démokrasi multi-partai.

Ékonomi Koréa Kidul tumuwuh kacida gancangna ti taun 1950 nepikeun ka ayeuna téh mangrupa hiji nagara nu ékonomina ka-10 panggedéna (numutkeun nilai nominal) sadunya. Koréa Kidul ogé salasahiji nagara di dunya ieu nu pangmajuna sacara téhnologi sarta kahubungkeun sacara digital. Koréa Kidul mangrupakeun nagara unggal jalmana (id: per kapita) ngabogaan konéksi internét pita lega (broadband) kadua pangluhurna sadunya[1], sarta mangrupakeun pamingpin global dina widang cocooan komputer, display digital, wangunan kapal jeung telepon mobil.

Industri hiburan Koréa Kidul tumuwuh subur ti taun 1990, mroduksi kasuksésan Asia-wide dina musik, televisi, jeung pilem dina fénomena nu disebut Hallyu, atawa "galura Koréa". Tapi sanajan kitu, nagara ieu masih pengkuh nyekel adat jeung tradisi baheula, saperti kadaharan jeung muja karuhun nu unik.

Étimologi[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Ngaran-ngaran Koréa.

Dina basa Koréa, Koréa Kidul disebut Daehan Minguk (대한민국kupingkeun , 大韓民國, nu hartina "Nagara Rayat Han nu Agung"). Ngaran pondokna nyaéta Hanguk (한국, "Bangsa Han," biasana ngarujuk kana Koréa) atawa Namhan (남한, "Koréa Kidul", ngarujuk ka koréa Kidul). Han ngarujuk ka konfederasi Semenanjung Koréa beulah kidul jaman baheula. Hanguk mangrupakeun istilah nu pangilaharna digunakeun ku urang Koréa.

Dina basa Inggris, nagara ieu sering dirujuk kalayan basajan ku kecap "Koréa", tina dinasti Goryeo, nu dirujukkeun deui kana karajaan Goguryeo. Basa Arab keur padagang nu mirip jeung Goryeo, "Cu'ree", nu mungkin geus miboga jalanna sorangan ka Italia salila Abad Panengah, ku sabab kitu "Corea" geus jadi istilah nu ilahar di keur urang Eropa. Dina abad 19 ahir, "Koréa" jadi digunakun leuwih luas.

Sajarah[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Sajarah Koréa jeung Sajarah Koréa Kidul.
Peta Koréa Kidul

Dina ahir Perang Dunya II, soldadu Amérika jeung Soviét geus nempatan beulah kidul jeung kalér Koréa, patuturut, nu nyababkeun kabagina semenanjung ieu ku garis 38th parallel. Sanajan geus jarangji pikeun ngabéla Koréa nu bébas tur ngahiji ngaliwatan Déklarasi Kairo taun 1943, nanging Amérika Sarikat jeung Uni Sovyét dina taun 1948 geus mantuan ngadegkeun pamaréntahan nu misah; antara Koréa Kalér nu komunis jeung Koréa Kidul nu kapitalis.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

On June 25, 1950, the North invaded the South, beginning a civil war that caused the deaths of more than 4 million civilians and soldiers alike, now referred to as the Korean War. The United Nations backed South Korea and the Soviet Union and China backed North Korea, eventually reaching a stalemate. The 1953 armistice split the peninsula along the demilitarised zone at about the original demarcation line. No peace treaty was ever signed, however, and therefore the two countries are technically still at war.

In 1960, a student uprising overthrew the autocratic government of Syngman Rhee and South Korea saw a brief period of democratic reforms. However, much to the disappointment of the people, the new government was disoriented, and political chaos ensued. Then, a military coup (5.16 Revolution) led by General Park Chung-hee, who thought that the communist reunification of the peninsula would be inevitable if the Korean government was kept at this state, toppled the weak government the following year. Park took over as president from 1962 until his assassination in 1979, overseeing rapid export-led economic growth as well as severe political repression.

Park's successor general Chun Doo-hwan launched a coup d'etat in 1980 to assume the presidency. Chun's seizure of power was greeted by widespread protests culminating in the 1980 Gwangju Massacre. In the aftermath of that incident, the movement for democracy gained strength and was ultimately successful in forcing Chun to allow free elections and a change to civilian democratic rule in 1988. That year, Seoul hosted the 1988 Summer Olympics.

In 1996, South Korea became a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Despite a severe setback caused by the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the country soon emerged as a major economic power. In 2004, South Korea joined the "trillion dollar club" of world economies and, today, its standard of living is equal to that of many countries in Western Europe.

In June 2000, as a part of South Korean president Kim Dae Jung's Sunshine Policy of engagement, a historic first North-South summit took place in North Korea's capital Pyongyang. That year, Kim won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work for democracy and human rights and efforts at reconciliation between the two Koreas. Since then, regular contacts have led to a slow thaw in relations and economic ties through trade and investment have increased dramatically. Kim, who is now retired, has made plans to visit Pyongyang again in June 2006.

Pamaréntahan jeung pulitik[édit | sunting sumber]

Citakan:Morepolitics

South Korea is a democratic republic with powers shared between the president, legislature, and judiciary. Since 1948, the constitution has undergone five major revisions, each signifying a new republic. The current Sixth Republic began with the last major constitutional revision in 1988.

The head of state and head of government is the president, who is elected by direct popular vote for a single five-year term. In addition to being the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, the president also has considerable executive powers. The president appoints the prime minister with approval of the National Assembly, as well as appointing and presiding over the State Council of chief ministers.

The South Korean legislature is the National Assembly, a unicameral body in which members serve a four-year term of office. This legislature currently has 299 seats, of which 243 are elected by regional vote. The remainder are distributed by proportional representation.

The South Korean judiciary is largely independent of the other two branches. The highest judiciary body is the Supreme Court, whose justices are appointed by the president with the consent of the National Assembly. In addition, the Constitutional Court oversees questions of constitutionality.

The main political parties in South Korea are the Uri Party, the Grand National Party (GNP), the Democratic Labor Party (DLP), and the Democratic Party (DP). The Uri Party was formed in late 2003 from a liberal faction of the DP (then the Millennium Democratic Party). It gained a slim majority in the National Assembly after the April 2004 legislative elections, but lost it in subsequent by-elections. The conservative GNP and centrist DP form the dominant political opposition. The progressive DLP is aligned with labour unions and farmers' groups, and constitutes the left-wing opposition.

Géografi jeung iklim[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Géografi Koréa Kidul.
Gambar satelit Koréa Kidul.

South Korea occupies the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula, which extends some 680 miles (1,100 km) from the Asian mainland. This mountainous peninsula is flanked by the Yellow Sea to the west, and the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the east. Its southern tip lies on the Korea Strait and the East China Sea. The country's total area is 38,462.49 square miles or 99,617.38 square kilometres.[2]

South Korea's land is mountainous, and most of it is not arable. Lowlands, located primarily in the west and southeast, constitute only 30% of the total land area. South Korea can be divided into four general regions: an eastern region of high mountain ranges and narrow coastal plains; a western region of broad coastal plains, river basins, and rolling hills; a southwestern region of mountains and valleys and a southeastern region dominated by the broad basin of the Nakdong River.

About 3,000 islands, mostly small and uninhabited, lie off the western and southern coasts. Jeju Island is located about 100 kilometres (about 60 mi) off the southern coast of South Korea. It is the country's largest island, with an area of 1,845 square kilometres (712 sq mi). Jeju is also the site of South Korea's highest point: Halla-san, an extinct volcano on Jeju, reaches 1,950 metres (6,398 ft) above sea level.

The local climate is relatively temperate, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called jangma, and winters that can be bitterly cold. In Seoul the average January temperature range is -7 °C to 1 °C (19 °F to 33 °F), and the average July temperature range is 22 °C to 29 °C (71 °F to 83 °F). Winter temperatures are higher along the southern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior. Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds and heavy rains. The average annual precipitation varies from 1,370 millimetres (54 in) in Seoul to 1,470 millimetres (58 in) in Busan.

Babagian administratif[édit | sunting sumber]

Babagian penting di Koréa Kidul
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 Artikel utama: Subdivisi Koréa Kidul.

South Korea is divided into 8 provinces, one special autonomous province, six metropolitan cities, and one special city. The names below are given in English, Revised Romanization, Hangul, and Hanja.

Propinsi[édit | sunting sumber]

Propinsi otonom husus[édit | sunting sumber]

  • 16. Propinsi otonom husus Jéju (제주특별자치도, 濟州特別自治道)

Kota métropolitan[édit | sunting sumber]

  • 2. Kota métropolitan Incheon (Incheon Gwangyeoksi; 인천광역시; 仁川廣域市)
  • 3. Kota métropolitan Daegu (Daegu Gwangyeoksi; 대구광역시; 大邱廣域市)
  • 4. Kota métropolitan Ulsan (Ulsan Gwangyeoksi; 울산광역시; 蔚山廣域市)
  • 5. Kota métropolitan Busan (Busan Gwangyeoksi; 부산광역시; 釜山廣域市)
  • 6. Kota métropolitan Gwangju (Gwangju Gwangyeoksi; 광주광역시; 光州廣域市)
  • 7. Kota métropolitan Daejeon (Daejeon Gwangyeoksi; 대전광역시; 大田廣域市)

Kota husus[édit | sunting sumber]

  • 1. Kota husus Seoul (Seoul Teukbyeolsi; 서울특별시; 서울特別市)

Tempo ogé: Kota-kota husus di Koréa jeung Propinsi di Koréa.

Ékonomi[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Ékonomi Koréa Kidul.

South Korea has the tenth largest economy in the world, and the third largest in Asia, behind only Japan and China. As one of the East Asian Tigers, it achieved rapid economic growth through exports of manufactured goods. This is in sharp contrast to the stagnation of North Korea's economy, which has turned for the worse since the disintegration of the Soviet Union. South Korea's per capita GDP is now roughly 12 times that of North Korea.[3]

In the 1950s, South Korea was one of the poorest countries in Asia.[4] At the end of World War II, the country inherited a colonial economic system designed solely for Japan's expansion policy.[5] Much of the country's infrastructure was destroyed during the Korean War that followed in 1950-1953.[6] After the war, South Korea became heavily dependent on U.S. aid.[7]

Following the military coup led by general Park Chung-hee in 1962, South Korea embarked on a series of ambitious five-year plans for economic development. Emphasis shifted to foreign trade with the normalization of relations with Japan in 1965 and a subsequent boom in trade and investment. Rapid expansion, first into light and then heavy industries, in the 1960s and 1970s followed. During this period, the South Korean economy grew at an average annual rate of 8.6%.[8]

This phenomenal growth is often called the "Miracle on the Han River", the Han River being the main river that runs through the nation's capital and largest city, Seoul. In the 1980s and 1990s, growth continued as South Korea transformed itself from an exporter of mostly textiles and shoes into a major global producer of automobiles, electronics, shipbuilding, and steel and later, high-technology fields such as digital monitors, mobile phones, and semiconductors.

The South Korean model of encouraging the growth of large, internationally competitive companies through easy financing and tax incentives led to the dominance of the family-controlled conglomerates. These companies, known as chaebol, flourished under the support of the Park regime.[9] Some such as Hyundai, Samsung, Daewoo, and LG became global corporations. Today, through all of this combined, South Korea is in the trillion dollar class, with a GDP of US$1.665 trillion.

Since the Asian financial crisis of 1997, however, the corporate landscape has changed considerably as a result of massive bankruptcies and government reforms. The crisis exposed longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's economy, including high debt/equity ratios, massive foreign borrowing, and an undisciplined financial sector. This led to two rounds of financial and industrial restructuring, in 1997 and again following the collapse of Daewoo in 1999.[10] Daewoo's collapse has been recorded as one of the world's largest bankruptcies in history.[rujukan?] By 2003, just over one-half of the 30 largest chaebol from 1995 remained.[11]

Between 2003 and 2005, economic growth has moderated to about 4% per year.[rujukan?] A downturn in consumer spending, attributed to massive personal credit card debt, was offset by rapid export growth especially to China. In 2005, the government proposed labor reform legislation and a corporate pension scheme to help make the labor market more flexible, and new real estate policies to cool property speculation.[rujukan?] Moderate inflation, low unemployment, an export surplus, and fairly equal distribution of income characterize this economy.[rujukan?]

Tumbu luar[édit | sunting sumber]

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  1. BBC News Stat
  2. The estimated area rises steadily from year to year, possibly due to land reclamation. "행정구역(구시군)별 국토면적". Korea Statistical Information Service. Diakses pada 27 Maret 2006. 
  3. According to 2005 US government estimates (North: $1800; South: $20,400). "GDP - Rank order - per capita (PPP)". CIA Factbook. Diakses pada 6 April 2004. 
  4. U.N. Stats
  5. Japan-guide
  6. cptour Korean War
  7. Cumings (1997), 305-307; Nahm (1996), p. 448.
  8. Yang (1999), p. 594.
  9. See ch. 6 in Cumings (1997).
  10. KOIS (2003), pp. 238-239.
  11. 18 out of 30, according to "Country Studies: South Korea". The Economist. 10 April 2003. Diakses pada 6 April 2006.